Item Open AccessExploring free-standing street booths as workplaces(Bilkent University, 2023-07) Karacaoğlan, Zeynep; Altay, BurçakThe main aim of this study is to explore the utilization of free-standing street booths as workplaces and examine their impact on employee satisfaction. Additionally, the study aims to create a typology of these booths and investigate the modifications and appropriations made by individuals to enhance their work experience. A diverse sample of eight taxi booths, eight carpark booths, eight buffet booths, and six security booths, totaling 30 booths situated in Tunalı Hilmi and Tunus Street, Ankara and surroundings are examined. The results contribute to the understanding of free-standing street booths as workplaces and offer valuable information to improve employee satisfaction by considering the specific needs and preferences of individuals in their work environments. Item Open AccessInvestigation of the relationship between human thermal comfort and activity patterns within the outdoor spaces of Bilkent University’s Main Campus(Bilkent University, 2023-06) Seyednouri, Hadi; Nouri, Andre SantosThe impact of climate change, resulting in rising temperatures, is believed to significantly influence the success or failure of outdoor spaces, with climatic factors playing a crucial role. Research has indicated that the maintenance of a comfortable thermal environment can have a notable impact on individuals' welfare. To date, global climate studies have not provided sufficient local specificity for urban planning and design. Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating complementary bottom-up perspectives. In line with this interest and focused on a particular case study, this thesis presents the findings of an empirical investigation conducted between May and September of 2022 at the main campus of Bilkent University located in Ankara, Turkey. In order to address physiological and psychological aspects of human thermal comfort and investigate the possible effect of human thermal comfort on lecturers’ and students’ activity patterns within outdoor spaces of the aforementioned campus, a two-phase study was designed. 12 days of observational studies during the first phase of this research produced a behavioral map, which when combined with a Shadow Behavior Simulation (SBS) map established the Points Of Interest (POI) of this research. Subsequently, in the second phase, 64 questionnaires were filled out by the pedestrian while microclimatic factors were measured in the POIs over the course of 13 days. In order to address the stated research questions, test the hypotheses, and propose design recommendations, through the application of the biometeorological RayMan model, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index, and modified PET were applied, along with statistical analyses using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and the cognitive maps considering microclimate. The findings of this study demonstrated good agreement between quantitative and qualitative results, presenting solar radiation as the most significant microclimatic factor. Human thermal comfort also had an impact on activity patterns within the study area, but not as significantly as seating availability for stationary activities and planning and function for moving activities. Item Open AccessEvaluation of identity, meaning - making, and visitor satisfaction in industrial heritage areas renovated as museums: The case of Müze Gazhane(Bilkent University, 2023-06) Aksel, İpek; İmamoğlu, ÇağrıThe restoration of cultural heritage areas in İstanbul's city center has gained increasing importance and popularity in recent times. This study focuses on the evaluation of identity, meaning-making, and visitors' satisfaction in the context of repurposed museums from heritage buildings. Specifically, the case study is conducted in Müze Gazhane, a unique industrial heritage site that has been transformed into a cultural complex and museum in 2021. The study examines the influence of museums’ identity and visitors' identity on the meaning they derive from their visit, and their satisfaction levels with a two-tiered approach involving quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A survey was conducted with 65 visitors, followed by semi-structured interviews with 12 participants. The study reveals that visitors' characteristics, motivations, and familiarity play a role in determining their meaning-making and satisfaction levels. Visitors with specific identity-related needs and motivations have higher levels of satisfaction and meaning-making. Furthermore, visitors who volunteer at the museum experience an increased sense of place and belonging to their neighborhood. The renovation of Müze Gazhane has also resulted in positive changes in visitors' daily lives and increased their overall quality of life. In conclusion, Müze Gazhane serves as an important place in the daily lives of visitors, attracting diverse motivations and contributing to their sense of belonging. The findings emphasize the need for utilizing and transforming heritage areas into museums to strengthen the relationship of citizens with their neighborhood and society. Item Open AccessExploring the role of motivation and preference on the relationship between neighborhood qualities and transport walking: a comparative study between Iran and Türkiye(Bilkent University, 2023-06) Fotovvat, Helya; Afacan, YaseminEncouraging walking as an active mode of transportation in daily trips can significantly contribute to the well-being of older adults. However, the literature, particularly in developing countries, has yet to explore this topic extensively. This thesis investigated the relationship between neighborhood qualities, motivations, preferences, and transport walking among older adults in Iran and Türkiye. Data from 172 participants in one hundred one neighborhoods across nine cities in Türkiye and eight cities in Iran were collected to examine the mediating role of motivations and preferences in this relationship in a two-phase study. While the findings from the first phase suggested no significant differences in mediating levels between the two countries, the second phase, which considered additional factors such as attitudes, revealed some variations in motivation and preference factors of neighborhood. The study also explored the potential moderating effects of gender and neighborhood type but found no significant differences. These results contributed to a better understanding of the multifaceted factors influencing transport walking behavior in older adults, including cultural, demographic, attitudinal, and climatic factors. Despite limitations in sample size and duration of data collection, this study provided valuable insights for future research and urban planning initiatives aimed at creating age-friendly and walkable neighborhoods that promote the health and well-being of older adults. Item Open AccessThe effect of lighting levels on lighting preferences for older adults using a non-immersive virtual environment of their residences(Bilkent University, 2023-06) Ilgaz, Ece Esin; Yılmazer, SemihaThis study aims to examine the lighting preferences of older adults in home corridors. The effect of different lighting arrangements, and lighting levels in home corridors at night were investigated in a non-immersive virtual environment. Six different lighting scenarios were established for a virtual home corridor, and 200 lux and 60 lux lighting were used in the ceiling lighting and ground lighting in these scenarios. The effects of yellow-green neon tapes applied to door frames and lighting switches on lighting preferences were also examined. For this purpose, 90 participants (60 to 85 years old) were recruited for this study. Firstly, the participants were asked to explore and experience the environments, then they were expected to answer the questionnaire with a semantic differential scale. The findings of this study demonstrated that there was a significant difference between 200 lux- 60 lux lighting. When there was ceiling lighting in the corridor, the participants mostly preferred 200 lux lighting. When there was ground lighting in the corridor, they reported 60 lux lighting more positive than 200 lux. When yellow-green neon tapes were additionally applied to the corridor for 60 lux lighting, the lighting condition using neon tapes was most preferred. Item Open AccessThe relationship between preference utilizing VR and synoptic thermal evaluation the case of public square of Amirkabir, Arak(Bilkent University, 2022-12) Taghavi Araghi, Seyed Mahziar; Nouri, Andre SantosPublic Open Spaces (POS) have been proven to have a positive effect on people’s life and overall well-being. As also suggested by the existing literature, the success of a POS can be interrelated with the number of individuals using it. However, the occurrence of Urban Heat Island (UHIs) has increased in recent years as a consequence of climate change which can significantly affect the presence of people in POSs and their usage pattern. Urban green spaces on the other hand can provide shade that covers outdoor environments, attenuating the effects of UHIs. In addition, urban inhabitants can benefit from psycho-physiological advantages of urban green spaces. Meanwhile, Amirkabir square as the first environment with the main concentration on pedestrians rather than vehicles in the city of Arak, needs urgent improvements in both aesthetics and thermal condition. To accomplish this aim, alongside thermal sensitive decision making, the use of virtual reality (VR) as a participatory means can offer a unique opportunity to ensure the positive effects of local interventions. This method and the integrative mergence between these two issues, and how they can frame an initial guidance for local design- oriented action, are interlinked contemporary factors that need to be addressed. As a result, the study's primary objective is to provide interdisciplinary recommendations for architects and urban designers on how to effectively approach the alternation of POSs for enhanced greenery design to approach both thermal comfort and psychological expectations. Hence, this study investigated people's preferences in four greenery design scenarios using VR techniques, then compared them to thermal comfort situations to determine whether the preferred scenario chosen by Araki inhabitants is the same scenario in which people performed best or not. People’s preferences were studied using VR technology and SPSS software for data interpretation. The quantitative thermal microclimatic conditions of Amirkabir urban square were obtained through the application and comparison of energy-based model thermal indices. These indices were the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the modified PET (mPET) through the use of biometeorological RayMan pro model. To facilitate the representation of the results, the Climate Tourism/transfer Information Scheme (CTIS) software was utilized. This innovative methodology revealed in the case of Arak, that the scenario preferred by people (Scenario D, p<.05), is different from the scenario with better thermal performance (Scenario A), and that people’s preferences and thermal outcome on different design scenarios are not necessarily parallel, which draws on local design and planning orientated professionals that shape cities to work in an interdisciplinary manner whilst addressing such crucial aspects. Through such a perspective, the modification of the urban fabric can be made to better ensure the long-term triumph of urban projects. Item Open AccessBoundary-creating practices in work spaces of academics working from home during the Covid-19 pandemic(Bilkent University, 2022-09) Kılıç, Sare; İmamoğlu, ÇağrıThis study aims to explore the ways of creating boundaries of academics working from home and investigate the differences between the practices of creating these boundaries. Although working from home is not a new practice, Covid-19 pandemic shifted the working patterns of most people, especially the education-related branches such as academics. This exploratory study investigates how people set up their work environments and the boundaries in response to the change in the working practice. The study consists of an exploratory interview that contains classified questions on spatial, temporal, and psychological boundaries people create in their working environments. Interviews were held face-to-face and online via Zoom with 20 participants. The thematic analysis method was used to analyze the collected data. The findings suggest that the ways of creating boundaries differ between individuals, and these changes are affected by factors such as marital status, population at home, and spatial limitations. The results give a general idea and offer an insight into the optimal separation or connection of working spaces in the home. Item Open AccessThe neurological and psychological effects of human and nature interaction: walking in natural landscape and landscaped garden environments(Bilkent University, 2022-09) Tolunay, Fulya; Afacan, YaseminLiving in an urban environment causes a low connection with nature. Both Natural Landscapes (NL) and Landscaped Gardens (LG) have positive influences on human neurological and psychological well-being. The inter-discipline of neuroarchitecture provides for examining the neurological effects of the environment. This thesis aims to understand the difference between walking in NL (woodland with natural water features- Eymir Lake) and LG (human-made garden with artificial water features- Park Oran Residential Area) environments. The neurological methodology of the study has an electroencephalogram (EEG), a measurement to analyze before- after the alpha to the beta brain frequency band. The findings demonstrate that walking in LG has more potential to increase relaxation and decrease stress than in the NL environment. This study aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the correlation between the neurological and psychological effects of different types of natural environments. Item Open AccessAnalysis of daily activities of young people with cerebral palsy in their home environments(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Tanrıverdi, Pınar; Altay, BurçakIn this study the difficulties experienced by young people with cerebral palsy, their level of dependence and related emotions and the level of importance they attach to daily living activities in the home environments are examined and compared. The main purpose of this study is to analyze which activities are most difficult for young people with cerebral palsy and the relationship between difficulties in activities and body parts. Also, it aims to examine during which activities young people with cerebral palsy are more dependent on others and how they feel as a result of this dependence. Furthermore, it also aims to compare the importance level that young people with cerebral palsy give to the activities. The survey phase is conducted with 31 young people with cerebral palsy aged 15-24. Afterwards, separate interviews are held with six participants who volunteered to take part in this phase, who also answered the survey questions. Survey results reveal that young people with cerebral palsy experience varied levels of difficulty in different activities. Also, there is a relationship between difficulties in doing activities and difficulties they experience in different parts of their bodies. Moreover, difficulties in doing daily activities increased their dependence and different emotions occur because of this. Finally, the survey results show that the importance level that young people with cerebral palsy give to the daily activities shift. Interview results reveal that the reasons why young people with cerebral palsy cannot do or not do activities differ and these reasons are explained. Also, the emotions that occur because of being dependent on others and the adaptations that they made or want to make in their homes are discussed. Item Open AccessAdaptive re-use of spaces as art galleries: the case of Beyoğlu, İstanbul(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Erkoç, Göksu; Altay, BurçakThis study aimed to understand adaptive re-use of spaces as art galleries with a focus on gallery owners’ perspectives as well as properties of the spaces. Accordingly, first, criteria were determined by combining art gallery characteristics: spatial visibility, transparency, flexibility, and adaptive re-use characteristics, which are architectural, locational, financial and market characteristics within the context of Beyoğlu. Afterwards, decision making of owners and their prioritizations in the selection of district and the space was explored by questionnaire. This was followed by documentation of the galleries as observation with respect to the determined characteristics. The results show that spatial characteristics of the space and conversion process were less concerned for owners. Therefore, its urban context and presence have much greater importance than its spatial characteristics. Item Open AccessSmell based memory of place and person-space relations(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Zengin, Didem; Altay, BurçakThe aim of this study is investigating the recalling process of smell-based memory of place and analyzing the relations between remembered smell perception, emotion, memory associations, place meaning and place bonding. For Smell Memory Diary phase 30 young adults (between age of 20-30) were recruited through snowball method and 15 of the participants volunteered for Online Interviews for the second phase. Instrument design involved Critical Incident Technique and sensory interview methods. By triangulation of two methods, recall process of smell-based memory of places, its relationship with emotions and the role of smell perception on place meaning and place bonding are researched. Thematic analysis of the results suggest that remembered experience of smell affects emotions and memory associations, which result in meaning making process of places and place bonding, depending on the social attributes and physical context of the place. In conclusion, it is possible to create meaningful and memorable places by integrating smell perception into design. Item Open AccessInvestigating the relationship of outdoor heat stress upon indoor thermal comfort and qualitative self-sleep evaluation: the case of Ankara(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Ahan, Merve Münevver; Nouri, Andre SantosRecently, the necessity of exploring the relationship between sleep quality and the thermal environment has amplified regarding increasing heat stress risk on the human body due to climate change, particularly in vulnerable-uninsulated buildings of Ankara. Within this scope, this study investigated occupants’ sleep quality and thermal comfort in insulated and uninsulated buildings under three local extreme heat event thresholds: (1) typical summer day (TSD25), (2) very hot day (VHD33), and lastly, (3) heat wave event (HWE31). Within a two-tiered approach to thermal comfort evaluations, the physiological thermal comfort of occupants was identified through the calculation of Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) from the climatic data of local meteorological stations. On the other hand, the psychological thermal comfort and sleep quality of participants were evaluated by questionnaires during each heat event. The results of this study demonstrated that PETOut reached 43.5 °C, which indicates the extreme heat stress within PS grades during the VHD33s. The PET values were consistently higher in uninsulated buildings than in insulated buildings. Also, most of the mean psychological thermal comfort votes (TCVs) and sleep quality votes (SQVs) were better in uninsulated buildings than in insulated ones during TSD25 and HWE31s, while it was the opposite within extreme conditions of VHD33s. The outputs of this study contribute to interdisciplinary efforts to attenuate the existing and impending risks of climate change on human life by defining the influence of increasing outdoor heat stress on indoor spaces, thermal comfort, and the sleep quality of occupants. Item Open AccessInvestigating the influences of shaded outdoor spaces on thermal adaptation and cognitive performance of university students in classroom environments(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Gündoğdu, Betül; Nouri, Andre SantosThe effects of shading strategies have been identified as an effective means to reduce urban risk factors such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Although the importance of shaded outdoor spaces and thermal comfort has been well documented in the existing literature; there is still limited research on how these spaces can influence thermal adaptability and cognitive performance of university students. As a result, the aim of the study is twofold: (1) to evaluate the effect of shaded outdoor spaces upon thermal comfort; and, (2) link such results upon the cognitive performance of university students in a classroom environment with natural ventilation. A case study was conducted with university students between the ages of 19-22 at the Bilkent University in Ankara, during the autumn season in the month of October. The quantitative thermal microclimatic conditions of unshaded/shaded areas of the university campus and indoor classroom settings were obtained through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index. The qualitative evaluation of thermal comfort was undertaken by using both the adaptive model and a complementary thermal comfort survey. D2 test of attention was conducted to measure the cognitive performance of students with different outdoor shading level experiences. This study revealed that the shade condition may improve thermal adaptation, and impact PET in outdoor and indoor contexts. Experiencing such space contributed to an improvement in cognitive performance of students within classroom settings in an era of climate change, where urban fabric continues to be susceptible to existing and future heat-related stress factors. Item Open AccessColor preferences in terms of value and chroma in university students’ dormitory rooms(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Koz, Serra; Olguntürk, NilgünEnvironments are considered as interior and exterior, both of which color is a vital part. The existing preferences studies mainly focus on hue and not enough on value and chroma which of three is the perceptual variables of color. Value has shown to be a more prominent factor in affecting color preferences than hue. The main goal of this research is to explore the relation of chroma and value to the preferences of university students. In this regard, university students expressed their preferences for 12 different surfaces taking place in the interiors of a dormitory room. Each surface was analyzed separately and the results showed that university students prefer high value in their color selections for dormitory rooms, except for two surfaces. The relationship between chroma and preferences have shown significant correlation except for the cabinet. Chroma and value were found to have a weak negative correlation. In the final part of the study, the role of gender was analyzed, considering the fact that dormitories are designed based on gender. The results indicated that gender and color preferences have a significant relationship regarding specific surfaces, differing among genders. Two surfaces were found to have statistically significant relations to males, namely, the walls, the floor and two surface showed significance for females, that are, the floor and the cabinet. All in all, the results indicate a common propensity for high value and low chroma with chromatic colors as well as a minor role of gender, effective in color preferences studies. Item Open AccessAudio-visual perception of outpatients in an oncology polyclinic(Bilkent University, 2022-06) Uğurlu, M. Zeynep; Yılmazer, SemihaThis study aims to analyze the effects of auditory and visual perception in a hospital environment to provide comfort for the outpatients. The research focused on the waiting area of an oncology polyclinic. The binaural audio recordings and 360° photographs were taken from three different locations (reception area, courtyard area, and corridor) on the site. Audio recordings were visualized through signal processing, and the photographs were evaluated through image analysis via MATLAB to show the auditory and visual differences among the locations. These three locations differed from each other in their auditory and visual environments. Regarding the hospital auditory environment, sound sources are human activity-related and technology-based. The reception area has an indoor opening, the courtyard area has indoor and outdoor openings, and the corridor area has none. Voluntary oncology outpatients in three locations in the polyclinic were given questionnaires (n=66) and interviewed (n=20). Questionnaires were analyzed in IBM SPSS Statistics, and interviews were analyzed with the Grounded Theory method in ATLAS.ti software. Equivalent Continuous A-Weighted Sound Level (LAeq) measurements were taken within the interview hours and at one-hour intervals from three locations. The questionnaire revealed that the courtyard area is calmer and more pleasant than the other areas. The conceptual framework created with semi-structured interviews showed how the auditory and visual environments affect the outpatients' perception. The conceptual framework revealed audio-visual perceptions in the hospital environment with the existing condition and outpatients' preferences and proposed suggestions for a hospital environment. Item Open AccessThe impact of walkability on eudaimonic and hedonic well-being in equal eye-level street greenery neighborhoods(Bilkent University, 2022-05) Sarıgöl, Müge; Afacan, YaseminThis thesis analyzed the influence of objective and subjective walkability on momentary hedonic and eudaimonic well-being while walking in neighborhoods. For this purpose, two neighborhoods with different objective walkability, and equal eye-level street greenery levels were chosen. Consequently, a survey was conducted with two hundred and nine neighborhood residents in total. The residents were asked about their perceptions regarding their neighborhood’s walkability levels, and momentary hedonic and eudaimonic well-being during walking in their neighborhoods. The results showed that objective walkability did not have a positive influence on perceived walkability, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, the data analysis indicated a positive moderate correlation between perceived walkability and momentary hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. The outcomes of this thesis provided new insights to researchers for means to facilitate and support momentary subjective well-being through perceived walkability dimensions. Item Open AccessThe impact of salutogenic design on perceived environmental quality and mood in healthcare environments: a comparative case study in dental clinics(Bilkent University, 2022-05) Özgön, Işıl; Afacan, YaseminThis thesis systematically analyzed the effect of biophilic design as a salutogenic design method on improving a patient’s perceived environmental quality and mood in dental clinic waiting rooms. For this purpose, five experts evaluated potential dental clinic waiting rooms based on their biophilic scores and selected two dental clinics to compare their waiting rooms. One hundred four patients perceived environmental quality and mood were assessed while they were waiting for their treatment in the waiting room of the two clinics. According to the results, the patients' perceived environmental quality was greater in the waiting area with a higher biophilic score. The patients' mood scores, on the other hand, did not show any significant differences across the clinics. The outcomes of this thesis lead to a better understanding of how to incorporate salutogenic design features into dental clinic waiting rooms to enhance the patient experience. Item Open AccessThe relationship of screen material with visitor behavior in exhibition spaces(Bilkent University, 2022-04) Karacan, Evrim; Demirkan, HalimeThe screen, with its diverse forms and materials, has been a part of the exhibition space as art practice as well as an integral part of human beings' lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the screen materials on space formation through observing different screen materials and explore the relationship between the materials of screens and visitor, by addressing visitor behavior that is divided as attention and interaction in exhibition spaces. Previous studies were mostly elaborated in the field of media and art, and few research was found in the architecture field. Therefore, this study seeks to present a comprehensive approach by gathering media, art, and architecture perspectives together in the visitor studies in the context of exhibition spaces. An exhibition experiment was designed, and different instruments were used in the assessment of the participants’ behavior, experience, and feelings. A total of 32 participants were selected based on defined demographic parameters. The findings of this study presented that, the profession item showed a significant correlation with the screen preferences and screen materials have an impact on the architectural layout from visitors’ perspective in terms of its physical form and its influence on the layout. Lastly, screen materials have a significant impact on the amount of attention paid as well as on the number of visitor interactions with exhibit objects in exhibition spaces. Item Open AccessCome sit with us: effect of recreational zones’ interior design on seafarers’ well-being in fishing vessels(Bilkent University, 2021-08) Koşar, Ezgi; Altay, BurçakThe aim of this study is to explore the factors in interior design of recreational areas and their effects on seafarers in Norwegian fishing vessels. The relationship between interior design of communal dining and living arrangements, well-being of seafarers and fatigue at sea have been researched. The methods of research are questionnaires of 34 crewmembers and interviews with 10 seafarers currently working onboard vessels or shipbuilding industry professionals with seafaring experience. The study consists of evaluations of 4 different fishing vessels’ with 3 different takes on recreational zones as well as measuring well-being and fatigue. The study focuses on the personal experiences and evaluations of seafaring professionals. Findings propose that there is a positive relationship between general evaluation of recreational zones and well-being. Findings also help define which interior design characteristics of recreational zones are more satisfactory for seafarers in Norwegian fishing vessels. Item Open AccessProduction of aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate and clay (AEP/C) board and investigation of physical and mechanical properties(Bilkent University, 2021-08) Mercan, Elif; Yılmazer, SemihaExpanded perlite aggregate (EPA) is an inorganic insulation material preferred because of its low thermal conductivity. In other respects, it has disadvantages in buildings because of its high moisture retention, sintering in case of fire, and fragility. This study aims to produce a clay-based insulation board by eliminating these disadvantages of EPA with aerogel modification. The sol-gel method was chosen, allowing low-cost aerogel synthesis in a laboratory and permitting the control of parameters throughout the process. The optimum synthesis process was designed by examining the acid and base variables in the process. The recipe obtained at the aerogel synthesis was used to constitute aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate (AEP). AEP particles were prepared with clay matrix under determined process conditions, and characterization tests were carried out. According to the results, aerogel modification prevents high-temperature sintering of EPAs. The AEPs and the aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate and clay (AEP/C) composites' density remained almost unchanged compared to the EPA and expanded perlite aggregate and clay (EP/C) control samples. Thus, this can be offered that the prepared boards are lightweight and can maintain low thermal conductivity. The results showed that the mechanical strength of the boards was slightly higher than the control samples and the aerogel modification has almost no effect on mechanical strength.