Bilkent University Institutional Repository (BUIR)

Bilkent University Institutional Repository (BUIR), a service of Bilkent University Libraries, collects, preserves, and distributes the intellectual output of Bilkent University. Faculty, staff, and students are invited to deposit their research and scholarship. Departments, administrative units, programs, and centers are invited to use the Institutional Repository to distribute their working papers, technical reports, conference proceedings, and other research material. For assistance in depositing documents. For more information, please contact us.


Scholarly Publications


University Library


Bilkent Theses

Recent Submissions

ItemOpen Access
How can bundle cosmopsychism solve the subject-derivation problem
(Bilkent University, 2024-05) Celayir, Berk
Cosmopsychism is the view that the universe as a whole is conscious and metaphysi- cally grounds all conscious subjects. While this position has the important advantage of avoiding the fundamental problems of physicalism, dualism and micropsychism, it faces a challenge called the subject-derivation problem, that is, it must explain how all the different conscious subjects derive from a singular cosmic subject. In this thesis, I will argue that the subject-derivation problem cannot be solved as long as a singular cosmic subject is assumed, and I will propose a new model for solving this problem, which I call Bundle Cosmopsychism. The main idea of my thesis is that a bundle of cosmic subjects subsuming the entire phenomenal statespace can ground all subjects in an irreducibly collective way.
ItemOpen Access
Mary Wollstonecraft’s revolution in manners and the kickback of constructed femininity
(Bilkent University, 2024-05) Çiftci, Sena
In my thesis, by using Simone De Beauvoir's concept of ‘the other’ from her book Second Sex, I attempt to solve the issue of how some features of produced femininity, such as submission, caretaking, sentimentality, and so forth, increase women's oppression. I argue that discriminatory practices that are explicitly gendered and imposed on a single gender have been producing negative outcomes, regarding the problem explained. Also, it should be acknowledged that adhering to these practices should not be promoted as necessary to be identified as a woman. I propose to follow the revolution in female manners advocated by Mary Wollstonecraft in A Vindication of the Rights of Women as a plausible and effective answer to ‘the otherness’ of women in society. Here I argue that the main reason for the plausibility is the said revolution’s inclusivity. Since Wollstonecraft argues that the revolution in female manners can be attained only by equal distribution of knowledge of the right kind of virtues and national education to all genders, inclusivity should be a given.
ItemOpen Access
The Politics of diversion: autocratic regimes and the use of force in times of domestic predicaments
(Bilkent University, 2024-05) Sevindik, Ali
When faced with a hard-to-solve domestic crisis, leaders may appeal to workaround the predicament instead of trying to solve the issue to ensure their survival as the political authority. One of the instrumental ways of overcoming the challenges of the domestic crisis through diverting the attention of public opinion could be using force against an ethnic or political group within the borders or against a country. The literature is dominated by research that heavily focuses on the diversionary motivations of democracies as they have electoral processes that give an opportunity to citizens to reward or punish the leaders for their successes or failures. However, very few studies examine the diversionary motivations of autocracies. In this thesis, I aimed to address this gap and contribute to the literature by examining the diversionary motivations of different types of autocratic regimes. I hypothesized that personalist and military autocracies are more conflict-prone than other autocracies in times of domestic crises. I constructed monadic and dyadic datasets by compiling available data. The monadic dataset consists of 258 observations of 59 countries between 1990-2001 whereas the dyadic dataset contains 123,819 observations of dyad-years between 1990-2001. To test my hypotheses, I conducted logistic regression analyses. My findings from the analyses demonstrated mixed results for the relations among domestic crises, regime type, and external and internal use of force but affirmed that personalist autocracies are more inclined to use force when faced with a domestic crisis vis-à-vis non-personalist autocracies.
ItemOpen Access
Phronesis and virtue in nicomachean ethics
(Bilkent University, 2024-05) Özcan, Kerem
Phronesis is the intellectual virtue of deliberating well regarding human goods. Aristotle introduces a biconditional requirement between phronesis and moral virtue; one cannot be present without the other. It seems puzzling, considering that they are different types of virtues with different tasks and acquisition processes. Therefore, a proper, detailed account of phronesis should be in accordance with what Aristotle directly says about phronesis and should shed light on the biconditional requirement. One attempt to understand phronesis is to form a parallelism between techne (art, skill, craft) and phronesis. This model attributes phronesis to power to an intellectual grasp of goodness, causal justifications, and ethical principles that underlie our actions. I argue that even though the technical conception of phronesis seems sufficient to explain why virtue requires phronesis, it fails to explain why phronesis requires virtue. Therefore, I suggest forming an analogy between empeiria (experience, knack) and phronesis that can explain both parts of the biconditional. In this empirical understanding, phronesis can be defined as an ethically significant intellectual virtue not based on cognitively high-powered reasoning but on everyday easoning equipped with experience, memory, and observation. Accordingly, I argue that the empirical conception of phronesis forms a unified dispositional state with the virtue of character for two reasons. Firstly, it weakens the strict division of labor between virtue and phronesis concerning ends and the things toward ends. Moreover, since the acquisition processes of virtue and the empirical conception of phronesis become intertwined, it seems more plausible to identify them as integrated parts of one dispositional state rather than two distinct cooperating states.
ItemOpen Access
Language ability in schizophrenia patients and genetic high-risk individuals: neuropsychological and computational investigation
(Bilkent University, 2024-05) Çabuk, Tuğçe
The study aimed to define language-related phenotypes in schizophrenia and analyze language in schizophrenia patients (SZ) and their unaffected siblings (SIB) as a possible endophenotype. For experiment 1, language was evaluated with the Thought and Language Disorder Scale (TALD), Thought and Language Index (TLI), phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, Boston Naming Test, and Scale for Scoring the Inclusion and the Quality of the Parts of the Story. Language skills of SIB were higher than those of SZ, but lower than those of healthy controls (HC). The best predictor of SZ and SIB was TLI score in the main regression model compared to HC. For experiment 2, I utilized Natural Language Processing (NLP) to explore whether there are altered linguistic features in Turkish-speaking SZ and whether these possible features as phenotypes are language-dependent or -independent. Analyses was conducted in two parts. Firstly, mean sentence length (MSL), total completed words (TCW), moving average type-token ratio (MATTR), and first- person singular pronoun usage (FPSP) were calculated. Secondly, I used parts-of- speech tagging (POS) and Word2Vec. I found that SZ had lower MSL and MATTR but higher use of FPSP. Results were correlated with the TALD. POS demonstrated that SZ used fewer coordinating conjunctions. Word2Vec detected that SZ had higher semantic similarity than HC and K-Means could differentiate between SZ and HC into two distinct groups with high accuracy, 86.84%. My findings suggest that semantics as subparts of language could be a possible endophenotype in schizophrenia. Thus, their assessment may improve the early diagnosis of the illness. Also, it showed that altered linguistic features in SZ are mostly language- independent.