Dept. of Archaeology - Master's degree

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Sacred spaces in Ancient Greece and Anatolia: architectural insights and sensory journeys of Eleusis and Klaros
    (Bilkent University, 2023-12) Mert, Recep Can
    This thesis delves into the profound intersection of architecture, ritual, and sensory experience in the Eleusinian Mysteries and the Oracle at Klaros. Through meticulously examining archaeological evidence, literary sources, and climatic considerations, the study unfolds the architectural designs of the Telesterion in Eleusis and the Temple of Apollo in Klaros, focusing mainly on the Late Hellenistic to Imperial Roman era. The experiential aspects of these sacred spaces, including spatial distortion, lighting effects, and climatic conditions, are scrutinized for their impact on participants. In Eleusis, the Telesterion's near-symmetrical layout creates an immersive environment, intensified by tiered seating and artificial illumination during the nocturnal ceremonies. The Anaktoron adds a layer of sensory triggers, prompting contemplation on the involvement of deities like Demeter. Meanwhile, the Temple of Apollo and subterranean adyton present a unique architectural ensemble. The labyrinthine corridors, deliberate darkness, and altered atmospheric conditions contribute to a transformative sensory experience. The journey through the crypts involves challenging descents, limited movement, and a revelation chamber. This analysis unveils the profound impact of Eleusinian and Klarian spaces, where the confluence of architectural choices and environmental conditions intricately shapes both initiatory and oracular experiences. The overarching objective of this study is to enhance our understanding of the experiential essence inherent in religious settings. It contributes significantly to a comprehensive knowledge of ancient sacred spaces, portraying them as multidimensional realms where architecture, climate, and sensory manipulation intertwine. This intricate interplay serves as a catalyst, facilitating a profound and meaningful connection between humanity and the divine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Lower Danube in Late Antiquity: The case of Histria
    (Bilkent University, 2023-08) Batum, Sercan
    This thesis analyses the nature of Histria in Late Antiquity between the 3rd and the 7th century AD. Histria is chosen as a case study as it is the most comprehensively studied city in Scythia Minor for the period. The thesis has two focal points. Firstly, it investigates the evolution of the site in Late Antiquity. Secondly, it re-assesses the nature of Histria in terms of the divergent claims as proposed by Constantin Scorpan in 1980 and by Andrew Poulter in 1992 regarding the nature of the place and other cities in the region in Late Antiquity. To achieve both aims, the thesis examines Histria in terms of its urban change and the transformation of both ecclesiastical and civic buildings and street networks in Late Antiquity. This is done within a chronological framework to assess the possible reasons for such change, such as Christianity, invasion, and urban reconstruction. In particular, the thesis concentrates on the Christianization of urban topography, and the inter-relationship between the extra- and intra-mural basilica churches there and Histria’s residential areas, in the context of the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity. By examining the effect of Christianity on the development of urbanism in the region, the thesis will favour the idea that the classical urban amenities lost their function of earlier periods as Christianity transformed the urban areas with significant landmarks, most especially the basilicas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    No rose without thorns: assessing 3D scanning methods in archaeology through case studies from Hattusa
    (Bilkent University, 2023-08) Pekzeren, Yiğit
    Over the last two decades, 3D scanning has become an increasingly important tool in archaeology, and it has seen steady growth in practical applications. However, despite this new wave of experimentation and integration of 3D methods in archaeological routines on a global scale, they are still rarely part of research in Turkey. The first main aim of this thesis is therefore to showcase the advantages of these techniques to help develop a community of 3D scanning users in this country through the employment of the exceptional work at Ḫattuša as a case study. The second aim is to assess what the best 3D tools according to research questions, availability of expertise, and budget actually are. The case study revolves around the "Ḫattuša Project," which features 3D scanning of significant archaeological and landscape features, including Nişantaş and the nearby Chamber 2, Yazılıkaya, the gorge between Büyükkaya and Ambarlıkaya, and the Great Temple. The methods used in the project provide useful arenas for investigating the strengths and weaknesses of the 3D approaches across different questions related to epigraphy, art history, architecture, and landscape archaeology. After presenting and assessing the application of 3D techniques at Ḫattuša, I evaluate the most commonly used 3D scanning techniques in archaeology, such as laser scanning, structured light scanning, and photogrammetry, according to several parameters, including data accuracy, price, learning curve, and ease of use. This allows me to identify the best practice to include 3D tools in archaeological fieldwork and research routines. It also provides an opportunity to discuss the potential shortcomings of current 3D methods and to identify areas where new technologies may significantly improve current products.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Quantitative approaches to Hittite historical geography: a network analysis of Hittite toponyms
    (Bilkent University, 2023-08) Akman, M. Ali
    There are many references to place names in the Hittite texts, and the understanding of their locations is crucial to the study of Hittite history and society. In the past, the examination of these place names, which occur more than 20,000 times, was limited to methods that were qualitative in nature. Nonetheless, due to the Hittite Toponyms project led by Adam Kryszeń, there is now an exciting opportunity to conduct a comprehensive quantitative study of Hittite toponyms. This research presents an original statistical methodology based on network analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the relative positions of toponyms in Hittite texts. Toponyms are represented as nodes in a network, and the strength of their connections is determined by the frequency of their occurrence in the same text fragment. This thesis demonstrates the proposed methodology's ability to explain geography through examples at different scales, including a modern case study and a case study on Durmitta's location. The results highlight that when combined with qualitative methods, the suggested statistical approach can offer new insights into Hittite historical geography, improving our comprehension of this ancient civilization.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Western Anatolian metalwork and (the self-image) of metal workers in the later ist millennium BC: a historical-archaeometrical approach
    (Bilkent University, 2023-06) Kayaalp, Aziz Cem
    This thesis displays the level of metalworking technologies utilized by ancient smiths in western Anatolia during the 1st millennium BC. Metalwork in western Anatolia during the 1st millennium BC is an unexplored field of study. Due to certain historical biases and the relatively new emergence of the archaeometrical techniques, there stands a gap between the history of Late Bronze Age and Hellenistic-Roman metalwork in western Anatolia. In contrast to the previous assumption that most of the metallurgical procedures arrived in Ancient Greece through Cyprus and the Levant, the archaeological evidence from western Anatolia demonstrates that those techniques were already present in the Aegean. Several ancient sites with both Bronze Age and Iron Age layers in western Anatolia, including Gordion, Klazomenai and Sardeis, offer a rich source of material for establishing links between metalworking techniques between the two periods due to the uninterrupted connection their materials present. By exploring the folk tales from Lydia, Mysia, and Phrygia, regions often associated with the origins of certain metalworking technologies and even elements, this thesis aims to uncover the inhabitants' perception of mineralogy. Consequently, the traces of the deliberations of western Anatolian philosophers and mythology are visible in Ancient Greek scientific legacy as seen through Aristoteles. This research highlights the significant influence of western Anatolian metalwork on the scientific legacy of Ancient Greece, both in theory and practice. Additionally, it suggests that western Anatolian metalworkers possessed a theoretical understanding of their work, potentially portraying themselves as keepers of knowledge through their craft.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Repatriation both ways: a theoretical approach to the repatriation policies of Turkey through case studies
    (Bilkent University, 2023-05) Atmış, Özkan
    Countries with cultural properties have always been subject to illicit trafficking and export of these items. Once a cultural property is deprived of its source country, it is also deprived of its context, roots in that land, and the culture to which it belongs. The concept of repatriation is a powerful tool in the competent hands of source countries that can be used to reattach this broken link. Even though repatriation is consulted mainly through source countries, market countries can still use this method. Any country seeking restitution for its stolen or illicitly exported cultural property is naturally working to repatriate their cultural heritage. In this sense, there is no strict definition or boundary of how repatriation should be done or what can be seen as repatriation. Any efforts dissipated to bring back the stolen or illicitly exported cultural property of a country can be seen under the umbrella of repatriation. The methodology that is followed in this thesis is first to introduce the main terminology like illicit trafficking of cultural property and repatriation. This definitive introduction also examines the leading institutions and agencies within this field. After laying out these main concepts, it introduces the relevant national and international legislation. The international legislation listed in Chapter 2 is not exhaustive but serves as an initial toolkit to confer. For this thesis, only the most relevant legislations are chosen. For the national legislation, only one law is consulted in detail. In Chapter 3, this thesis starts discussing the theories behind the illicit trafficking of cultural property and repatriation. Being able to discuss case studies about repatriation requires an initial knowledge of the theories behind these concepts. This chapter is also where a literature review on these concepts is done. The literature review comprises both national and international publications within the field. After laying out the prominent publications on the above-mentioned matters, Chapter 4 introduces the selected case studies to the reader. This chapter's framing is designed to see and analyze the repatriation efforts and policies of Turkey in action. Along with the initial benefit of introducing us to the repatriation policies of Turkey, all of these are being published in an academic study in this context for the first time. There are newspaper articles both nationally and internationally for some of the cases. Even though these cannot be seen as academic publications but rather as secondary sources from which I have also benefitted from time to time, in addition to my main source of information, which the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism provided. Learning about the history of events within each case is significant. Still, we cannot speak about success if we do not see them in contrast to each other and discuss how the reactions and policies of Turkey differed from case to case. In Chapter 5, the selected case studies are evaluated internally and externally, contrasting each other. With this comparison, it is realized that no single method can be applied in the repatriation of cultural property, but rather it shifts according to the case at hand. Even though there are definitive measures, the extent and time of their application vary according to the case. It is further of grave value to realize both the similarities and differences in trying to finalize the repatriation efforts in the sense that it allows the nation-states to build up a database of case studies they can consult in future cases. It is concluded by making projections regarding the future of the field of repatriation and what possible solutions might be developed for these future conflicts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Oikoi building at Labraunda: its function(s)
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Durak, Çağla
    This thesis investigates the function of the Oikoi building at Labraunda in the 4th century BC. The Oikoi building was constructed as part of the extensive Hekatomnid building program at Labraunda in the 4th century BC with an unusual ground plan. With its two rooms and a common tetrastyle in antis porch, the Oikoi building is an excellent example of experimental Hekatomnid architecture. Yet, because of the uniqueness of the building, the question of its function has remained unanswered since it was first excavated in 1948. In addition, the continuous use of the building throughout the centuries and its reconstruction in the 6th century AD caused the loss of the archaeological material of the 4th century BC. In order to find the function, two strategies have been used. First, a catalog of buildings with similar ground plans has been provided in this thesis to see if the ground plan fits a specific function. However, the comparative study showed that buildings with two rooms might have several functions, such as a temple, a banqueting hall, a prytaneion, and an ekklesiasterion. The possibilities of the Oikoi building being a temple, a banqueting hall, or an ekklesiasterion were ruled out due to the Oikoi building’s architectural features, its place in the sanctuary, and lack of sufficient evidence. Second, epigraphic research was done to see if the name “oikoi” given to the building on the architrave inscription provides information on the function of the building. By using Hellmann’s (1992) study on the inscriptions from Delos, possibilities such as the Oikoi building being a treasury or a storage unit were examined. This thesis stands in a grey area on that function since there is no architectural or epigraphic evidence to eliminate this possibility. When we turn to the building itself, the context of the inscriptions found in the building showed that the Oikoi building functioned in relation to the office of the shrine, and there was a cult of Hestia related to the Oikoi building at least in the 2nd century AD. If the building was used continuously and the function did not change in the 2nd century AD, the Oikoi building being some kind of unusual prytaneion is possible also considering the Hekatomnid ideology of the 4th century BC.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Surveying post-1204 Arta: art and architecture in the first capital of the despotate of Epirus (1200-1330s)
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Yıldız, Gözde
    This thesis explores the outflow of aristocratic families from Constantinople following the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to Epirus and the impact of this population movement on architecture and art in Epirus’ capital city, Arta. The patronage and motivations of the said families in the architectural developments, iconographic programs and messaging in Arta are examined, by way of reviewing the material evidence against the background of the political developments involving Epirus in the thirteenth century. After the introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 focuses on the contemporary and other sources regarding the historical background on the events of the fourth crusade and its aftermath, particularly in the region of Epirus. The chapter will also include the brief overview of Epirus before and after 1204, in the thirteenth century. The focus of the Chapter 3 is on art and architecture in Arta. The developments in monumental architecture are reviewed against the historical context, with an aim of tracing the changes in the patronage and motivations of the Epirote rulers and aristocracy during the thirteenth century. The conclusion provides the summary of findings of the research. Elevation of Epiros’ political and military status in the thirteenth century that manifested itself in the quest of its rulers to first take over Constantinople, and then to achieve and maintain independence created a context which boosted the architectural activities and art. With a mix of Constantinopolitan and western influences, and with themes ranging from attempts to re-create the atmosphere of Constantinople to creating something entirely new in the independent Epirus, the ruling, ecclesiastic and aristocratic families sought to seek legitimacy, garner support, announce their ambitions and promote their agenda.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The ptolemaic presence outside Egypt: material evidence
    (Bilkent University, 2022-07) Alper, Ece
    This thesis provides a survey of Ptolemaic material evidence outside Egypt in the eastern Mediterranean during the 3rd-2nd centuries BC. The regions include Cyrenaica, Cyprus, the Levant, coastal Asia Minor, and the Aegean. The types of material evidence presented are architecture, sculpture, terracotta figurines, ceramics, coinage, and minor arts. The thesis aims to analyze the local and non-local impacts on the material data as well as the motivations of the Ptolemies occupying these overseas territories. Chapter 1 presents the historical background of the Ptolemaic kingdom. The administrative and military history relating to the Ptolemaic rule in the foreign territories is discussed. Chapters 2-6 introduce each foreign territory occupied by the Ptolemies, in the following order: Cyrenaica, Cyprus, the Levant, coastal Asia Minor, and the Aegean. Each material category, namely architecture, sculpture, terracotta figurines, ceramics, coinage, and minor arts, is covered in all these chapters. Both surviving materials and these known only from inscriptions are included in the study. The analysis of the material evidence aims to demonstrate the relations among the inhabitants of the Hellenistic eastern Mediterranean in terms of cultural, religious, economic, military, and administrative aspects. Chapter 7 offers conclusions. Cyprus and the Levant shows a large scale Ptolemaic impact since the Hellenization coincided with the arrival of the Ptolemies in these regions. However, Asia Minor and the Aegean do not reveal the Ptolemaic influence in great detail since these territories were already Hellenized. Cyrenaica presents a special case since it was also already Greek but received a more direct impact from Egypt.
  • ItemOpen Access
    LBA I ceramics from Kinet Höyük Period 15 a statistical assessment of the cross-regional standardization of Hittite ceramics in Late Bronze Age Anatolia
    (Bilkent University, 2022-03) Baskın, Sena
    This project examines the LBA I ceramics from Kinet Höyük Period 15 contexts, which are marked by the introduction of Hittite material culture. It aims to understand to what extent ceramic production in Kinet follows the norms of Hittite pottery tradition. Chapter I introduces the site of Kinet Höyük, elaborates on archaeological contexts and reviews the historical narrations about the Hittite involvement in Kizzuwatna. Period 15 ceramics were unearthed from the partly exposed official building in trenches J/L, E/H, and C on the mound and Sounding R from LBA lower city. Chapter II engages in scholarly discussions and recent trends in ceramic studies in Hittite archaeology, alongside theoretical and methodological discussions about ceramic standardization in archaeological theory. Further, it examines written sources about pottery, potters, and crafts organization in the Hittite Kingdom. Chapter III and IV present material examination of ceramics regarding fabric, forms, production techniques and potmark applications. Chapter V compares Kinet Period 15 ceramics with the ceramics from central Anatolia and Cilicia. Statistical comparison with Hattusa ceramics from the recent excavations (Schoop, 2006; 2011; Gruber, 2017) and visual comparison focusing on forms, fabric, and production techniques with central Anatolia and Cilicia yield significant results. Firstly, fabric and forms from the Hittite ceramic repertoire dominate the Kinet Period 15 assemblage. Significantly, however, different functional vessel categories show different degrees of cross-regional standardization. For example, food preparation and serving vessels are statistically and visually very comparable with Hattusa ceramics. Nonetheless, cooking vessels show variation in form frequency and metrical parameters.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Foreigners and foreignness in Hittite Anatolia
    (Bilkent University, 2021-09) Dağbaşı, Ege
    Identifying foreigners and foreign elements, and understanding how foreignness was conceptualized in the Hittite world is challenging. Since the Hittite society was complex and, it included various different languages and possible ethnic groups, it is not obvious in the textual or archaeological record which individuals and groups were accepted and which were perceived as unfamiliar to the society. Just as there were no particular words to indicate locals, citizens or Hittites in general, there is not a single word to mark foreigners in the Hittite language. Several different words were used to distinguish marginalized groups and individuals. Archaeological records as much as the textual sources provide insights into the presence and perception of the foreigners in Hittite society. Foreign artefacts in Hatti represents the connections and contacts of the Hittites with their surrounding states. Hittite relations with Azzi-Ḫayaša are a good example to comprehend the attitudes of the Hittite towards a region and a state that they might have perceived as foreign.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The socio-political structure of Western Anatolia during the (L)BA
    (Bilkent University, 2021-09) Özbaş, Beril
    The socio-political structure of western Anatolia during the (Late) Bronze Age is the focus of this thesis. It is visible that the western Anatolian Bronze Age is relatively an understudied subject in comparison to Central Anatolia. One of the biggest problems of the Anatolian Bronze Age studies is that the relative works are either based on archaeological data or textual sources. This paper aims to use both archaeological data and textual sources to reach a broader understanding of the socio-political structure of the region during the (L)BA. To manage this, the text chapter studies different Hittite texts that provide insights about western Anatolia. Based on these texts, five different tables were created, and they present terms related to socio-political structure. These are geographical/political terms, terms related to residents of foreign lands, terms related to military power, terms related to administrative offices. The archaeology chapter studies the socio-political structure of the western Anatolian Bronze Age from a general to specific approach by starting with the settlement types and patterns, geographical and (material) cultural zones in the region, and continue with the case studies from different parts of western Anatolia as Beycesultan, Kaymakçı, Troy, and Bademgediği Tepe. By combining both textual and archaeological data, it is hoped that this thesis will bring attention to the western Anatolian Bronze Age and present a more comprehensive perspective on its socio-political structure.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Changing perceptions of sculptural polychromy in Europe: from Ancient Greece to the 21st century
    (Bilkent University, 2021-06) Uçar Sarıyıldız, Dilara
    This thesis examines the perception of polychromy in Greek sculptures over different periods by using archaeological and art historical data. To examine the usage of polychromy in Antiquity, ancient sources and technological methods have been assessed. The aim of this research is to understand the perception of color in the Greek period and to pinpoint the time of when this perception changed looking at a timespan from the Renaissance to the present. This studied identified possible motivations for the use of color in Greek sculptures: visibility, realism, meaning, completion, and tradition. It also revealed possible reasons for the rejection of color in the Renaissance and subsequent periods were also understood: contempt towards the Middle Ages, admiration for Antiquity, and establishment of a new tradition.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Managing intangible cultural heritage in Turkey: four cases originating in antiquity
    (Bilkent University, 2021-06) Mendeş, Seren
    This thesis concerns the intangible cultural heritage of Turkey. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has taken various steps to safeguard and promote intangible cultural heritage over time. Recently, owing to the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, effective strategies have started to occur. The Convention includes two lists, Representative and Urgent Safeguarding Lists, for elements to be nominated and then adopted. Four elements from Turkey have been chosen as case studies because they are originating in antiquity. Three of them are registered in the Representative List: Flatbread making and sharing culture, Dede Korkut epics, and the Mangala game. The fourth one, the Kılıç Kalkan dance, is presented as a suggestion to be also registered in that list. Their roots in the past are examined by using ancient texts and sometimes artifacts. Because nowadays safeguarding intangible cultural heritage is a growing international concern, this thesis also proposes new safeguarding activities. It is hoped that this research will offer various insights into the concept of intangible cultural heritage and that the results will contribute not only to the understanding of intangible cultural heritage from a different perspective but also to help further studies on this topic.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Phoenicians in Cilicia during the Middle Iron Age: the scope of their presence
    (Bilkent University, 2020-06) Kısmet Okur, Yaprak
    This thesis is a study on the use of Phoenician language for the monumental inscriptions which were set up in Plain Cilicia, and dated to the mid 8th c. BC. This thesis aims to assess the hypothesis that Phoenician, as the "trade language" of the eastern Mediterranean and the ancient Near East, became the lingua franca of the period, for the settlements in Plain Cilicia. In order to follow this hypothesis, the political structure and trade network of the period are presented. On the one hand, by proposing what motivated the local rulers in using Phoenician as the second written language, and on the other hand, based on the analysis of the archaeological and historical evidence, this thesis also questions the interest and the presence of the Phoenicians in Cilicia during the Middle Iron Age.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Green museums: an introduction and a possible implementation in Ankara
    (Bilkent University, 2020-06) Dedeoğlu, Defne
    This thesis explores study the concept of green museums, reviews informational resources on this topic, evaluates the possibility of a green museum in Ankara as a case study and makes suggestions about its implementation. Recently, the severity of the threat of climate change has highlighted the concepts of “green” and “sustainability”. Green building and museum practices emerged to bring these concepts to life. The thesis includes a discussion as well as a timeline on the history of green buildings and green museums. Many international and local green building certification systems have been developed and started to be used for the environmentally friendly construction and implementation of buildings and museums. In this thesis, the criteria of LEED, which is the most known and widely used of these systems, are consulted. Then, the principles required to become a green building, hence a green museum are examined. Some of these are sustainable material selection, efficient use of water and energy, renewable energy sources and waste management. In addition to these green practices common to any green construction, a green museum should also use green exhibition techniques and provide education for a sustainable world. Green museums following these principles exist mainly in the USA. The only example in Turkey is the Konya Tropical Butterfly Garden. A survey was carried out with museum officials in and around Ankara about their awareness and knowledge of the concept of green museums. According to the survey, the subject of green museums is not known much in Ankara. However, the possibility of a green museum in Ankara is very favorable as I demonstrate in my case study. The existence of environmentally conscious consulting firms, eco-friendly material producers, local and natural building materials, and sufficient examples of green buildings are the factors that would facilitate the opening of a green museum in Ankara while a new museum building could be built, many old buildings could be renovated and turned into green museums as well. It has become a necessity, not an option, for museums in Turkey and Ankara to practice green principles because of the increasing environmental problems at present. This thesis is expected to contribute to the creation of awareness of green museums and to serve as an introduction to resources for realizing them.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A phytolith study from Kinet Höyük Hatay
    (Bilkent University, 2019-12) Köseoğlu, Tuğçe
    Phytolith studies are now an established subbranch of archaeobotanical studies. However, there is a very limited number of phytolith studies focused on Anatolia. Kinet H oyük is one of the eligible sites since extensive archaeobotanical studies were conducted and studies are ongoing. From Kinet, 23 samples are studied for phytolith analysis. 13 of them are extractions from soil samples and 10 of them are samples which are suspected to contain phytolith fibers. The contexts vary between room floor sediments to storage pits. For this study, the focus is on the multicellular phytoliths, since they can be used for a higher resolution of identification (Rosen, 1992). This study aims to observe the chronological changes in storage pit use, if there are any, and the variation between contexts. Another focus will be the use of reed in these contexts and the possible reasons for their use. For this thesis, quantifiable data was obtained and they were subject to statistical analysis. The results suggest that there are no contextual difference in the phytolith assemblage of Kinet; however, chronological changes were observed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Mother of Gods from right here: the goddess Meter in her Central Anatolian contexts
    (Bilkent University, 2019-08) Aversano, Joseph Salvatore
    There are upwards of sixty different cult epithets for the Phrygian goddess Meter in Central Anatolia alone during the Roman Imperial period. Considering that only three or four of her epithets are known from the Hellenistic period, the contrast is striking. Moreover, many of the epithets tend to be epichoric, so that in essence, her names can change from one valley to the next. In some cases, merely hearing an epithet is enough to bring a certain part of central Anatolia to mind. From this, a natural question arises. Why was there a need for so many local Meter cults in Asia Minor? The goddess Meter, called Magna Mater by the Romans, had been adopted into the Roman Pantheon in 204 BC; but could she, although indigenous to Phrygia, no longer meet the religious needs of her homeland’s people? This thesis approaches these questions by two primary means. By utilizing its own accompanying catalogue of Meter epithets collected from inscriptions, it looks at patterns in the geographic distribution of epithets and in the semantics of recurring epithet types. The spatial distribution of cult epithets reflects the geopolitical situation in Roman Imperial Asia Minor where there appears to have been a lack of strong imperial centers in the uplands, and where local communities could create their own localized, albeit modest, centers at the state’s peripheries. Meanwhile, the semantics of recurring epithet types offer clues regarding the local concerns and core values of those living in these very peripheries.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Figural motifs on Halaf pottery: an iconographical study of late neolithic society in Northern Mesopotamia
    (Bilkent University, 2019-08) İpek, Bahattin
    Information about the lifestyles of ancient cultures, their daily activities, religious beliefs, close or long distance trade relations, or cultural interactions come from their products. Ancient material productions can be briefly mentioned by examples such as stone tools, pottery, and secular or religious buildings. Thanks to excavations or socio-cultural surveys, we are able to make comments on the ancient societies' materials. Wall paintings, motifs or scenes on pottery provide us important information about the lifestyles or religious beliefs of ancient cultures. The aim of this thesis is to give information about the motifs on Halaf pottery, which belongs to the Late Neolithic period and spread over a wide area in Northern Mesopotamia. First, the socio-cultural structure of the Halaf culture will be examined. It will turn to animal motifs, human motifs or narrative scenes on Halaf pottery for the information about Halaf culture that it presents to us. It also examines the role of dancing figures and feasting in the Halaf culture.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Persian period tombs in Western Antolia as reflections of social and political change
    (Bilkent University, 2019-07) Dulun, Mustafa Umut
    Fourteen tombs in western Anatolia, from Hellespontine and Greater Phrygia, Lydia, Lycia, and Caria are analyzed in order to understand the social and political change in the Persian period, and to understand the relationship between the local elite and their Persian overlords. Monumental tombs such as the tumulus and temple tombs, their architectural forms and features, contents and artworks are within the scope of this study. The distinction between the burials of elites and administrators was not attested in Hellespontine and Greater Phrygia, nor in Lydia, whereas the securely identified tombs of the dynasts in Lycia and Caria, and their privileged locations separated the rulers from the other elite. The variations in the architectural features in tumulus tombs and the iconography used in these tombs are considered as indicators of identity in western Anatolia. Even though the 6th century BC tombs illustrated continuation of the pre-Persian period mortuary traditions, the conspicuous increase in monumental tomb construction seems to have been owed to the prosperity provided by the Persian Empire. The tumulus, which had been used by the Lydian royals, was now a common burial type in the Persian period, and the wealth required to erect such monuments was now available for the western Anatolian elite. The 5th century BC illustrated a predominant Persian influence and support for the empire, and this phenomenon was considered as a response to the historical events that occurred in the region in the early 5th century BC. Caria and Lycia had freer and more original monuments because they were not satrapal centers in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Dynast tombs of the 4th century BC were distinguished from the early Persian period tombs and symbolized the changing social and political agenda of these regions.