The ptolemaic presence outside Egypt: material evidence
This thesis provides a survey of Ptolemaic material evidence outside Egypt in the eastern Mediterranean during the 3rd-2nd centuries BC. The regions include Cyrenaica, Cyprus, the Levant, coastal Asia Minor, and the Aegean. The types of material evidence presented are architecture, sculpture, terracotta figurines, ceramics, coinage, and minor arts. The thesis aims to analyze the local and non-local impacts on the material data as well as the motivations of the Ptolemies occupying these overseas territories. Chapter 1 presents the historical background of the Ptolemaic kingdom. The administrative and military history relating to the Ptolemaic rule in the foreign territories is discussed. Chapters 2-6 introduce each foreign territory occupied by the Ptolemies, in the following order: Cyrenaica, Cyprus, the Levant, coastal Asia Minor, and the Aegean. Each material category, namely architecture, sculpture, terracotta figurines, ceramics, coinage, and minor arts, is covered in all these chapters. Both surviving materials and these known only from inscriptions are included in the study. The analysis of the material evidence aims to demonstrate the relations among the inhabitants of the Hellenistic eastern Mediterranean in terms of cultural, religious, economic, military, and administrative aspects. Chapter 7 offers conclusions. Cyprus and the Levant shows a large scale Ptolemaic impact since the Hellenization coincided with the arrival of the Ptolemies in these regions. However, Asia Minor and the Aegean do not reveal the Ptolemaic influence in great detail since these territories were already Hellenized. Cyrenaica presents a special case since it was also already Greek but received a more direct impact from Egypt.