Foreigners and foreignness in Hittite Anatolia
Identifying foreigners and foreign elements, and understanding how foreignness was conceptualized in the Hittite world is challenging. Since the Hittite society was complex and, it included various different languages and possible ethnic groups, it is not obvious in the textual or archaeological record which individuals and groups were accepted and which were perceived as unfamiliar to the society. Just as there were no particular words to indicate locals, citizens or Hittites in general, there is not a single word to mark foreigners in the Hittite language. Several different words were used to distinguish marginalized groups and individuals. Archaeological records as much as the textual sources provide insights into the presence and perception of the foreigners in Hittite society. Foreign artefacts in Hatti represents the connections and contacts of the Hittites with their surrounding states. Hittite relations with Azzi-Ḫayaša are a good example to comprehend the attitudes of the Hittite towards a region and a state that they might have perceived as foreign.