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Item Open Access1 mJ pulse bursts from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier(Optical Society of America, 2012-07-01) Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Eldeniz, Y. B.; Akçalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; Efe, M.; İlday, Fatih Ömer; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Akçalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; İlday, Fatih ÖmerWe demonstrate burst-mode operation of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber amplifier capable of generating 60 μJ pulses within bursts of 11 pulses with extremely uniform energy distribution facilitated by a novel feedback mechanism shaping the seed of the burst-mode amplifier. The burst energy can be scaled up to 1 mJ, comprising 25 pulses with 40 μJ average individual energy. The amplifier is synchronously pulse pumped to minimize amplified spontaneous emission between the bursts. Pulse propagation is entirely in fiber and fiber-integrated components until the grating compressor, which allows for highly robust operation. The burst repetition rate is set to 1 kHz and spacing between individual pulses is 10 ns. The 40 μJ pulses are externally compressible to a full width at half-maximum of 600 fs. However, due to the substantial pedestal of the compressed pulses, the effective pulse duration is longer, estimated to be 1.2 ps. Item Open Access1.06μm-1.35μm coherent pulse generation by a synchronously-pumped phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser(OSA, 2017) Elahi, Parviz; Makey, Ghaith; Turnalı, Ahmet; Tokel, Onur; İlday, Fatih ÖmerSummary form only given. Rare-earth-doped fiber lasers are attractive for microscopy and imaging applications and have developed over the past decades rapidly. They are unable to cover near-infra-red region entirely and therefore Raman and parametric process are promising for producing new wavelengths which are out of emission band of the current fiber lasers. Here, we demonstrate a synchronously-pumped Raman laser system for producing coherent signals spanning from 1.06 μm to 1.35 μm. The laser system comprises a passively-mode-locked oscillator, two stages of amplifier and a phosphosilicate Raman oscillator. The schematic of experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1(a). A mode locked oscillator operating at 37 MHz is using as a seed source. The output pulse duration and central wavelength are 6 ps and 1065 nm, respectively. 6 mW output from oscillator is launched to pre amplifier comprises 85-cm long Yb 401-PM pumped by a single mode diode through a PM wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The power amplifier consists of a 3.5-m long Yb 1200-DC-PM with 6 μm core diameter and 125 μm cladding diameter pumped by a temperature stabilized, high power multimode diode laser via a multimode pump-signal combiner (MPC). A 30/70 coupler is employed for delivering pump signal at 1060 nm to the Raman oscillator comprises 4.2-m long ph-doped fiber. To synchronize pump and Raman and achieve coherent pulses, we adjust the length of cavity by a precise translation stage. By using proper filter inside the Raman cavity, different wavelengths are achieved. Item Restricted1.5D parallel sparse matrix-vector multiply(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2018) Kayaaslan, E.; Aykanat, Cevdet; Uçar, B.; Aykanat, CevdetThere are three common parallel sparse matrix-vector multiply algorithms: 1D row-parallel, 1D column-parallel, and 2D row-column-parallel. The 1D parallel algorithms offer the advantage of having only one communication phase. On the other hand, the 2D parallel algorithm is more scalable, but it suffers from two communication phases. Here, we introduce a novel concept of heterogeneous messages where a heterogeneous message may contain both input-vector entries and partially computed output-vector entries. This concept not only leads to a decreased number of messages but also enables fusing the input- and output-communication phases into a single phase. These findings are exploited to propose a 1.5D parallel sparse matrix-vector multiply algorithm which is called local row-column-parallel. This proposed algorithm requires a constrained fine-grain partitioning in which each fine-grain task is assigned to the processor that contains either its input-vector entry, its output-vector entry, or both. We propose two methods to carry out the constrained fine-grain partitioning. We conduct our experiments on a large set of test matrices to evaluate the partitioning qualities and partitioning times of these proposed 1.5D methods. Item Open Access1.7-GHz intra-burst repetition rate Yb-fiber amplifier system(IEEE, 2015) Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Kerse, Can; Akçaalan, Önder; İlday, F. Ömer; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Kerse, Can; Akçaalan, Önder; İlday, F. ÖmerMaterial processing efficiency of ultrafast pulses increases dramatically with repetition rate of the pulses, if the conditions are adjusted correctly to avoid excessive plasma and particulate shielding. However, given that there is a minimum pulse energy requirement, continuous operation at high repetition rates can be detrimental due to too much average power leading to heat accumulation. Burst-mode operation of lasers, wherein the amplifier periodically produces a group of pulses (a burst), which are very closely spaced in time, avoids this problem. However, ultrafast burst-mode lasers are typically limited to several 100 MHz intra-burst repetition rates. While this is sufficient for most materials, metals with high thermal conductivity require higher repetition rates. Item Open Access1/f Noise characteristics of SEJ Y-Ba-Cu-O Rf-SQUIDs on LaAlO3 substrate and the step structure, film, and temperature dependence(IEEE, 2001-03) Fardmanesh, M.; Schubert, J.; Akram, R.; Bick, M.; Zhang, Y.; Banzet, M.; Zander, W.; Krause, H. J.; Burkhart, H.; Schilling, M.Step edge junction (SEJ) rf-SQUID magnetometers and gradiometers were fabricated using PLD Y-Ea-Cu-0 films on LaA10,(100) and SrTi0,(100) substrates. Effects of different step structure and the film properties on the yield, optimal operating temperature, and the l/f noise of the SQUIDs were investigated. The step structure was controlled using various IBE processes. The devices on LaAIO, showed higher sensitivity to the step structure compared to those on SrTiO,. This was due to re-deposition of substrate material at the steps prepared using the conventional IBE process resulting in a very low yield of unstable SQUIDs. High yield of low l/f noise stable SQUIDs was obtained on LaAIO, substrates with sharp steps prepared using an optimized IBE process. A typical l/f noise corner frequency of about lOHz at 77K with two major temperature dependencies was obtained. The temperature dependencies of the l/f noise could be correlated to the junction and the film of washer area of the SQUIDS. The white noise of our devices showed a dependency mainly on the amplitude of the flux to voltage transfer function signal. The operating temperature range of the SQUIDs could be controlled by the step structure and narrowed when the optimal operating temperature range was increased. All the measured junctions of our devices on the modified steps showed RSJ type behavior with a moderate decrease of the R, versus temperature. Item Open Access100-GHz resonant cavity enhanced Schottky photodiodes(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998) Onat, B. M.; Gökkavas, M.; Özbay, Ekmel; Ata, E. P.; Towe, E.; Ünlü, M. S.; Özbay, EkmelResonant cavity enhanced (RCE) photodiodes are promising candidates for applications in optical communications and interconnects where ultrafast high-efficiency detection is desirable. We have designed and fabricated RCE Schottky photodiodes in the (Al, In) GaAs material system for 900-nm wavelength. The observed temporal response with 10-ps pulsewidth was limited by the measurement setup and a conservative estimation of the bandwidth corresponds to more than 100 GHz. A direct comparison of RCE versus conventional detector performance was performed by high speed measurements under optical excitation at resonant wavelength (895 nm) and at 840 nm where the device functions as a single-pass conventional photodiode. A more than two-fold bandwidth enhancement with the RCE detection scheme was demonstrated. Item Open Access11th international conference MMET*2006(IEEE, 2007) Altıntaş, AyhanThe 11th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET*06) was organized and sponsored by the IEEE AP-S East Ukraine Joint Chapter at the Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, june 26-29, 2006. The objective of the conference was to provide an environment for the efficient exchange of research ideas and results, and for the emergence of new friendships and international collaborations across wide range of electromagnetic modeling techniques and applications, as well as to encourage and motivate the young scientists and students in the region. Item Open AccessA 128-bit microprocessor compatible programmable correlator chip for use in synchronous communication(IEEE, 1989) Ungan, İ. Enis; Topçu, Satılmış; Atalar, AbdullahA single-chip microprocessor-compatible 128-b correlator is designed and implemented in a 3-μm M2CMOS process. Full-custom design techniques are applied to achieve the best tradeoff among chip size, speed, and power consumption. The chip is placed in a microprocessor-based portable data terminal using HF radio communication. It marks the beginning of a synchronous data stream received from the very noisy channel by detecing the synchronization (sync) word. The sync word can be detected for either inverted or noninverted input data streams. Two chips can be cascaded to make a 256-b correlator. The chip is fully programmable by a microprocessor to set the number of tolerable errors in detection and to select the bits of the 128-b (or 256-b) data stream to be used in the correlation. Item Open Access175 fs-long pulses from a high-power single-mode er-doped fiber laser at 1550 nm(Elsevier, 2017) Elahi, P.; Kalaycıoğlu, H.; Li, H.; Akçaalan, Ö.; Ilday, F. Ö.Development of Er-doped ultrafast lasers have lagged behind the corresponding developments in Yb- and Tm-doped lasers, in particular, fiber lasers. Various applications benefit from operation at a central wavelength of 1.5 μm and its second harmonic, including emerging applications such as 3D processing of silicon and 3D printing based on two-photon polymerization. We report a simple, robust fiber master oscillator power amplifier operating at 1.55 μm, implementing chirp pulse amplification using single-mode fibers for diffraction-limited beam quality. The laser generates 80 nJ pulses at a repetition rate of 43 MHz, corresponding to an average power of 3.5 W, which can be compressed down to 175 fs. The generation of short pulses was achieved using a design which is guided by numerical simulations of pulse propagation and amplification and manages to overturn gain narrowing with self-phase modulation, without invoking excessive Raman scattering processes. The seed source for the two-stage amplifier is a dispersion-managed passively mode-locked oscillator, which generates a ∼40 nm-wide spectrum and 1.7-ps linearly chirped pulses. Item Open Access2-D adaptive prediction based Gaussianity tests in microcalcification detection(SPIE, 1998-01) Gürcan, M. Nafi; Yardımcı, Yasemin; Çetin, A. Enis; Çetin, A. EnisWith increasing use of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS), Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) methods will be more widely utilized. In this paper, we develop a CAD method for the detection of microcalcification clusters in mammograms, which are an early sign of breast cancer. The method we propose makes use of two-dimensional (2-D) adaptive filtering and a Gaussianity test recently developed by Ojeda et al. for causal invertible time series. The first step of this test is adaptive linear prediction. It is assumed that the prediction error sequence has a Gaussian distribution as the mammogram images do not contain sharp edges. Since microcalcifications appear as isolated bright spots, the prediction error sequence contains large outliers around microcalcification locations. The second step of the algorithm is the computation of a test statistic from the prediction error values to determine whether the samples are from a Gaussian distribution. The Gaussianity test is applied over small, overlapping square regions. The regions, in which the Gaussianity test fails, are marked as suspicious regions. Experimental results obtained from a mammogram database are presented. Item Open AccessA 2-D orientation-adaptive prediction filter in lifting structures for image coding(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006) Gerek, Ö. N.; Çetin, A. Enis; Çetin, A. EnisLifting-style implementations of wavelets are widely used in image coders. A two-dimensional (2-D) edge adaptive lifting structure, which is similar to Daubechies 5/3 wavelet, is presented. The 2-D prediction filter predicts the value of the next polyphase component according to an edge orientation estimator of the image. Consequently, the prediction domain is allowed to rotate ±45° in regions with diagonal gradient. The gradient estimator is computationally inexpensive with additional costs of only six subtractions per lifting instruction, and no multiplications are required. Item Open Access2-D triangular mesh-based mosaicking for object tracking in the presence of occlusion(SPIE, 1997) Toklu, C.; Tekalp, A. M.; Erdem, A. TanjuIn this paper, we describe a method for temporal tracking of video objects in video clips. We employ a 2D triangular mesh to represent each video object, which allows us to describe the motion of the object by the displacements of the node points of the mesh, and to describe any intensity variations by the contrast and brightness parameters estimated for each node point. Using the temporal history of the node point locations, we continue tracking the nodes of the 2D mesh even when they become invisible because of self-occlusion or occlusion by another object. Uncovered parts of the object in the subsequent frames of the sequence are detected by means of an active contour which contains a novel shape preserving energy term. The proposed shape preserving energy term is found to be successful in tracking the boundary of an object in video sequences with complex backgrounds. By adding new nodes or updating the 2D triangular mesh we incrementally append the uncovered parts of the object detected during the tracking process to the one of the objects to generate a static mosaic of the object. Also, by texture mapping the covered pixels into the current frame of the video clip we can generate a dynamic mosaic of the object. The proposed mosaicing technique is more general than those reported in the literature because it allows for local motion and out-of-plane rotations of the object that results in self-occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate the successful tracking of the objects with deformable boundaries in the presence of occlusion. Item Open Access2-nm laser-synthesized Si nanoparticles for low-power charge trapping memory devices(IEEE, 2014-08) El-Atab, N.; Özcan, Ayşe; Alkış, Sabri; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Nayfeh, A.; Okyay, Ali KemalIn this work, the effect of embedding Silicon Nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in ZnO based charge trapping memory devices is studied. Si-NPs are fabricated by laser ablation of a silicon wafer in deionized water followed by sonication and filtration. The active layer of the memory was deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and spin coating technique was used to deliver the Si-NPs across the sample. The nanoparticles provided a good retention of charges (>10 years) in the memory cells and allowed for a large threshold voltage (Vt) shift (3.4 V) at reduced programming voltages (1 V). The addition of ZnO to the charge trapping media enhanced the electric field across the tunnel oxide and allowed for larger memory window at lower operating voltages. © 2014 IEEE. Item Open Access2010 IAPR workshop on pattern recognition in remote sensing, PRRS 2010: preface(2010) Aksoy, S.; Younan, N. H.; Forstner, W. Item Open Access2D Network overtakes 3D for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022-07-18) Ahmad, Aliyu Aremu; Türkan Gamze Ulusoy, Ghobadi; Özbay, Ekmel; Karadaş, Ferdi; Ahmad, Aliyu Aremu; Türkan Gamze Ulusoy, Ghobadi; Özbay, Ekmel; Karadaş, Ferdi3-Dimensional (3D) cyanide coordination polymers, typically known as Prussian blue Analogues (PBAs), have received great attention in catalysis due to their stability, easily tuned metal sites, and porosity. However, their high crystallinities and relatively low number of surface-active sites significantly hamper their intrinsic catalytic activities. Herein, we report the utilization of a 2-dimensional (2D) layered cobalt tetracyanonickelate, [Co–Ni], for the reduction of protons to H2. Relying on its exposed facets, layered morphology, and abundant surface-active sites, [Co–Ni] can efficiently convert water and sunlight to H2 in the presence of a ruthenium photosensitizer (Ru PS) with an optimal evolution rate of 30 029 ± 590 μmol g−1 h−1, greatly exceeding that of 3D Co–Fe PBA [Co–Fe] and Co–Co PBA [Co–Co]. Furthermore, [Co–Ni] retains its structural integrity throughout a 6 hour photocatalytic cycle, which is confirmed by XPS, PXRD, and Infrared analysis. This recent work reveals the excellent morphologic properties that promote [Co–Ni] as an attractive catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Item Open Access2D RF pulse design for optimized reduced field-of-view imaging at 1.5T and 3T(Elsevier Inc., 2021-10-22) Eren, Orhun Caner; Barlas, Bahadır Alp; Sarıtaş, Emine Ülkü; Eren, Orhun Caner; Barlas, Bahadır Alp; Sarıtaş, Emine ÜlküTwo-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency (2DRF) excitation pulses are widely used for reduced field-of-view (FOV) targeted high-resolution diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), especially for anatomically small regions such as the spinal cord and prostate. The reduction in FOV achieved by 2DRF pulses significantly improve the in-plane off-resonance artifacts in single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI). However, long durations of 2DRF pulses create a sensitivity to through-plane off-resonance effects, especially at 3 T where the off-resonance field doubles with respect to 1.5 T. This work proposes a parameter-based optimization approach to design 2DRF pulses with blips along the slice-select axis, with the goal of maximizing slab sharpness while minimizing off-resonance effects on 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scanners, separately. Extensive Bloch simulations are performed to evaluate the off-resonance robustness of 2DRF pulses. Three different metrics are proposed to quantify the similarity between the actual and ideal 2D excitation profiles, based on the signals within and outside the targeted reduced-FOV region. In addition, simulations on a digital brain phantom are performed for visual comparison purposes. The results show that maintaining a sharp profile is the primary design requirement at 1.5 T, necessitating the usage of relatively high slab sharpness with a time-bandwidth product (TBW) around 8–10. In contrast, off-resonance robustness is the primary design requirement at 3 T, requiring the usage of a moderate slap sharpness with TBW around 5–7. Item Open Access3 boyutlu kartezyen olmayan paralel görüntülemede değişken görüntü alanına dayalı geriçatım(IEEE, 2018) Şenel, Celal Furkan; Çukur, Tolga; Şenel, Celal Furkan; Çukur, TolgaMRG’de yaygın olarak kullanılan geriçatım yöntemleri değişken yoğunluklu Kartezyen olmayan taramalara da uygulanabilmektedir; fakat bu durumda bu yöntemlerin genellikle yüksek hesaplama karmaşıklığı içeren çok sayıda yinelemeye ihtiyaç duyması özellikle 3 boyutlu geriçatımlara uygulanabilirliklerini sınırlamaktadır. 2 boyutlu Kartezyen olmayan veri için daha hızlı geriçatım almak amacıyla, PILS’e dayalı, değişken görüntü alanlarını kullanan bir teknik yakın zamanda teklif edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada bu teknik 3 boyutlu değişken yoğunluklu veriye uygulanmış, ek olarak elde edilen görüntüler dalgacık regülarizasyonu kullanılarak kalan artifaktlardan temizlenmiştir. Önce regülarizasyon için farklı parametrelerin başarımları karşılaştırılmış, sonra regülarizasyon da dâhil olmak üzere değişken görüntü alanı yönteminin, karelerin toplanması, PILS ve ESPIRiT geriçatımları ile başarımları karşılaştırılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar teklif edilen yöntemin başarısının karşılaştırılan diğer geriçatımlardan üstün olduğunu göstermektedir. Item Open Access3-Boyutlu orman yangını yayılımı sistemi(IEEE, 2008) Köse, Kıvanç; Yılmaz, E.; Grammalidis, N.; Aktuğ, B.; Çetin, A. Enis; Aydın, İ.; Çetin, A. EnisIn the last few years, due to the global warming and draught related to it, there is an increase in the number of forest fires. Forest fire detection is mainly done by people but there exists some automated systems in this field too. Besides the detection of the forest fires, effective fire extinhguising has an important role in fire fighting. If the spread of the fire can be predicted from the starting, early intervene can be achieved and fire can be extinguished swiftly. Using the Fire Propagation Simulator explained here it is aimed, to predict the fire development beforehand and to visulalize this predictions on a 3D-GIS environment. ©2008 IEEE. Item Open Access3-D motion estimation and wireframe adaptation including photometric effects for model-based coding of facial image sequences(IEEE, 1994-06) Bozdağı, G.; Tekalp, A. M.; Onural, L.We propose a novel formulation where 3-D global and local motion estimation and the adaptation of a generic wireframe model to a particular speaker are considered simultaneously within an optical flow based framework including the photometric effects of the motion. We use a flexible wireframe model whose local structure is characterized by the normal vectors of the patches which are related to the coordinates of the nodes. Geometrical constraints that describe the propagation of the movement of the nodes are introduced, which are then efficiently utilized to reduce the number of independent structure parameters. A stochastic relaxation algorithm has been used to determine optimum global motion estimates and the parameters describing the structure of the wireframe model. Results with both simulated and real facial image sequences are provided. Item Open Access3-D motion estimation of rigid objects for video coding applications using an improved iterative version of the E-matrix method(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998-02) Alatan, A. A.; Onural, L.As an alternative to current two-dimensional (2-D) motion models, a robust three-dimensional (3-D) motion estimation method is proposed to be utilized in object-based video coding applications. Since the popular E-matrix method is well known for its susceptibility to input errors, a performance indicator, which tests the validity of the estimated 3-D motion parameters both explicitly and implicitly, is defined. This indicator is utilized within the RANSAC method to obtain a robust set of 2-D motion correspondences which leads to better 3-D motion parameters for each object. The experimental results support the superiority of the proposed method over direct application of the E-matrix method.