Tourism and Hotel Management

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 67
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using experiments in sport consumer behavior research: a review and directions for future research
    (FiT Publishing, 2023-03) Ko, Y. J.; Kwak, D. H.; Jang, E. W.; Lee, J. S.; Asada, A.; Chang, Y.; Kim, D.; Pradhan, S.; Yılmaz, Semih Sait
    A growing number of sport consumer behavior scholars have been employing experimental methods, especially because experiments allow researchers to gain a better understanding of causal inferences by examining controlled conditions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to offer the current state of the adoption of experimental methods in sport consumer behavior research and (2) to discuss and highlight best practices that scholars can use when considering experimental designs. More specifically, we discuss methodological gaps existing in sport consumer behavior research by reviewing published sport consumer behavior articles in a content analysis. We also provide considerations to improve validity of empirical findings and outline the characteristics of well-designed experiments and how they can help advance theory development in the field. Ultimately, we offer practical recommendations and guidance to researchers wishing to use experiments in a wide array of research topics within sport consumer behavior.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Does emotional labor affect nurses suffering from workplace violence? A moderated mediation model
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2023-03-28) Erkutlu, Hakan; Chafra, Jamel; Uçak, Hatice; Kolutek, Rahşan
    Purpose This paper aims to investigate the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence based on the social exchange theory. Drawing on the social exchange theory, this paper aims to investigate the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing positive patient treatment as the mediator. The moderating role of organizational support in the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence is also considered. Design/methodology/approach The data of this study encompasses 536 nurses from 10 university hospitals in Turkey. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model. Findings The findings of this study support the negative effect of emotional labor on workplace violence and the mediating effect of patient-positive treatment. Moreover, when organizational support is low, the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence is strong. In contrast, the effect is weak when organizational support is high. Practical implications The findings of this study suggest that health-care administrators should offer more training to nurses to help them manage their emotions while interacting with their patients. This leads to positive interpersonal relationships, which, in turn, lowers workplace violence. Moreover, health-care administrators should pay more attention to the buffering role of perceived organizational support for those subordinates with low emotional labor and higher workplace violence. Originality/value The study provides new insights into emotional labor’s influence on workplace violence and the moderating role of organizational support in the link between emotional labor and workplace violence. The paper also offers practical assistance to nurses in the health-care industry interested in building positive patient treatment and trust with their patients and minimizing workplace violence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the emergency nutrition response in Malatya after Türkiye-Syria earthquake
    (Cambridge University Press, 2023-11) Begüm Kalyoncu Atasoy, Z.; Kurt, S. Ceren; Beckerman-Hsu, J.; Söyünen, S.; Kalyoncu, Mehmet Fuatcan; Kaptanoğlu, A.
    The Türkiye-Syria earthquake struck eleven provinces directly in Türkiye on February 6, 2023. Emergency nutrition care is indispensable for sustaining the lives of victims and rescue personnel. To optimally support their wellbeing, emergency food must be both healthy (i.e., aligned with dietary guidelines) and safe. However, globally, there is a dearth of research on the emergency nutrition conditions in shelters in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters. This lack of scientific evidence could limit the extent to which nutritional gaps can be identified and remedied for future relief efforts. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrition environment and nutritional quality of emergency meals distributed to survivors in Malatya, a heavily affected province in Türkiye. The rapid assessment was conducted in thirteen locations by using an embedded case-study design to evaluate the nutrition environment both quantitatively and qualitatively. Meals served to earthquake victims and volunteers were found to be insufficient in protein, fat, fiber, vitamin C, calcium and iron, but sodium levels were higher than the maximum threshold in many of the centers. The qualitative analysis illustrated insufficiency in three domains of the emergency food and nutrition environment: foods and beverages offered, cooking/food preparation and food safety, and dining areas and other facilities. Given the major nutritional gaps identified in this study, future disaster preparations should implement emergency nutrition plans that ensure healthy, nutritious, and safe food for survivors. Better coordination and use of technology are necessary for interventions to prevent malnutrition.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring omnivores and univores in art museums
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-29) Gürel, Eda
    This research note makes an original contribution to tourism research by reporting qualitative findings on the experiences and motivations of various art museum visitors using the omnivore-univore and push-pull frameworks. The study sample includes current visitors to two main art museums in Genoa, Italy. 400 face-to-face interviews are conducted to gather data on the definition of museums. The grounded theory approach is used to explore the experiences and motivations of art museum visitors by referring to their definitions. For this purpose, 347 useable definitions are reviewed to identify push and pull motivations by using NVivo 11. Findings suggest that Cultural Omnivores are more likely than Art Museum Univores to describe a museum using push factors involving various intrinsic experiences. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Social inclusion of disabled performers in the performing arts: a case from Türkiye
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2023-10-25) Collins, Ayşe; Fillis, I.; Sanal, Z. G.
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding for the social inclusion of disabled performers in a developing country to create awareness and improve policies/practices. Design/methodology/approach – The study employed qualitative methodology, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews, site visits/observations and review of secondary data. Findings – The data from different respondent groups showed the social inclusion should be reviewed at three levels: the state, society and individual. The review of existing policies revealed the neglect of the state regarding disabled people in general and even more so in performing arts due to the lack of enforcement of national and international agreements. Findings indicate that social inclusion of disabled performers is a minor issue, especially in a developing country where access to basic human rights and needs may be difficult. Amidst such difficulties, performing arts is not seen as a priority compared to other needs of disabled people and performers. Research limitations/implications – Limitations include the limited number of disabled performers who could be identified and were willing to participate in the study. Those working in venues/public offices were also reluctant to participate. The greatest limitation was the broad lack of interest in disabled performers. Originality/value – In Turkiye, studies on disabled people tend to focus on basic needs like health, education € and employment. None, to best of researchers’ knowledge, explore the social inclusion of disabled performers. This is an original study because it collects and discusses primary data on this topic, revealing the state-level negligence/ oversight, the apathy of society and the degree to which an individual with disabilities must struggle to participate in performing arts. Consequently, this study shows the difficulty of developing social inclusion, equality and diversity in an emerging economy for disabled performers to raise awareness and present grounds for further legal enforcement. Moreover, implications allow for a global understanding of social inclusion that moves beyond a biased or privileged understanding/critique of disability centered on the developed world.
  • ItemOpen Access
    I am a professional dancer
    (2023-10) Rentschler, R.; Lee, B.; Collins, Ayşe; Yoon, J.
    The demand for professional recognition for artists with disability is growing. There is little research, however, on the ways in which disability arts are associated with professionalism. This study examines professionalization in disability arts by comparing it with the concept of professionalization in the arts generally. It identifies three components of professionalization in disability arts by means of a case study of an inclusive arts organization. This qualitative study entails 17 semi-structured interviews with artists, staff members, and other stakeholders both with and without disabilities. The results identify both commonalities and differences in the components of professionalization between artists with and without disability and indicate challenges to be met in improving public perceptions toward the professionalization of artists with disability.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A qualitative analysis of Turkish stakeholders perspective for improving medical tourism
    (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2022-06) Collins, Ayşe; Medhekar, A.; Göknil Şanal, Z.
    This qualitative study explores from Turkish medical tourism stakeholders' perspective the supply-side driving factors for improving medical tourism services in Turkey and provides positive healthcare experience to medical travelers. Five groups of stakeholders (27 participants) were interviewed: hospitals/medical centers, medical travel-agencies, medical-legal regulators, government, and non-government organizations. Findings show that Turkey has a dual-sector public and private model of medical tourism service providers. Four interrelated themes with policy implications were generated: medical tourism promotion, logistics and development initiatives, medical cost, hospital quality accreditation, and other issues related to medical-legal, government incentives for Turkish diaspora, and promoting Turkish medical tourism overseas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Choosing a higher education destination: marketing of where, why and how?
    (Routledge, 2022-03-13) Collins, Ayşe; Şimşek, H.; Takır, A.
    This study attempts to contribute to marketing services in higher education literature through the relationship between international students’ satisfaction with educational experiences and the necessary adjustments by institutions to augment their services. It also aims to make theoretical contributions by understanding the international students’ satisfaction criteria for university selection and enrolment. The findings of the study offer administrative implications for universities as well, regarding how they could appeal to international students by emphasizing components of institutional branding via online and offline marketing communication tools. Quantitative methodology was employed and data was collected through a survey. Sampling strategy was voluntary participation and 197 international students replied to the survey. Findings indicate that international students use personal contacts and social relations in finding international higher education institutions. Further, international students care about the campus culture (safe or not), the physical infrastructure of the university and library resources provided to students.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leader moral disengagement and follower knowledge hiding. A moderated mediation model of follower Machiavellianism and trust in the leader
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-07-07) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel
    Purpose – This study aims to build a moderated mediation model to investigate the roles that trust in the leader and follower Machiavellianism can play in the relationship between moral disengagement of the leader and hiding of knowledge of the followers. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from eight universities in Turkey using a set of 72 matched leader (dean)–follower (faculty member) questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multiple regression, moderated regression and bootstrapping analyses. Findings – The findings reveal that leader moral disengagement positively influences follower knowledge hiding, while trust in the leader mediates this influence and follower Machiavellianism not only moderates the relationship between leader moral disengagement and trust in the leader but also reduces the indirect relationship between leader moral disengagement and follower knowledge hiding through trust in the leader. Research limitations/implications –Even though measurements of research variables were collected from different sources and with time separation, common method bias might have existed. Also, this research is carried out in a single cultural context posing the issue of the generalizability of our findings to other cultural contexts. Originality/value – The main contribution of this study is to construct and investigate a conceptual model that focuses on the possible effect of moral disengagement of the leader on knowledge hiding by the followers. Also, by supporting the mediating role of trust in the leader, this research reveals that followers of leaders with high moral disengagement are more prone to indulge in the hiding of knowledge. Moreover, the moderating role of follower Machiavellianism, found in this study, provides an additional understanding that followers may vary in the degree to which they are sensitive to the leader’s influence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring barriers to social inclusion for disabled people: perspectives from the performing arts
    (Cambridge University Press, 2021-09-05) Collins, Ayse; Rentschler, R.; Williams, K.; Azmat, F.
    Although the potential of arts to promote social inclusion is recognised, barriers to social inclusion for disabled people in the arts is under-researched. Based on 34 semi-structured interviews with disabled people and those without disability from four arts organisations in Australia, the paper identifies barriers for social inclusion for disabled people within performing arts across four dimensions: access; participation; representation and empowerment. Findings highlight barriers are societal, being created with little awareness of needs of disabled people, supporting the social model of disability. Findings have implications beyond social inclusion of disabled people within the arts, demonstrating how the arts can empower disabled people and enable them to access, participate and represent themselves and have a voice. Our framework conceptualises these four barriers for social inclusion for disabled people for management to change.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Gender, risk-taking and entrepreneurial intentions: assessing the impact of higher education longitudinally
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-04-29) Gürel, Eda; Madanoglu, M.; Altinay, L.
    Purpose This longitudinal study assesses whether higher education has the same impact on the entrepreneurial intentions of women and men with regard to their propensity to risk-taking in particular. Design/methodology/approach A self-administrated survey instrument was used to collect data from students studying business and engineering at five selected universities in Turkey. The survey was carried out in two intervals: first year and fourth year of studies. A total of 215 student participated in both waves. Findings The findings indicate that the impact of education is stronger for women than for men as the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention is moderated by education and risk-taking propensity in that the entrepreneurial intention of women with high or low risk-taking propensity increases when they acquire higher education. In particular, the boost is more noticeable for women with low risk-taking propensity. On the contrary, the effect of education is negative for men with both high risk-taking propensity and low risk-taking propensity. Practical implications This study has identified that the impact of education is different for women and men. Based on these findings, Turkey could offer gender-specific entrepreneurship education in higher education for individuals who could then exploit their entrepreneurial capacity and thus contribute to the social and economic well-being of the country. Originality/value This paper makes two distinct contributions. First, this is one of the few longitudinal studies in the literature which demonstrates the differences between females and males in terms of their entrepreneurial intention and shows how risk-taking and education influence entrepreneurial intention. Second, it offers new insights into entrepreneurship research from a developing-country but emerging-economy context.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Developing insights into the link between art and tourism through the value co-creation lens
    (Emerald, 2020) Gökbulut-Özdemir, Ö.; Fillis, I.; Baş-Collins, Ayşe
    Purpose – The aim of the study is to gain insight into the link between art and tourism from a value co-creation perspective. This link is discussed with the help of the arts marketing, art tourism and value co-creation literature. The role of art in tourism and the role of cultural places in arts marketing are also evaluated. Design/methodology/approach – Focussing on two cultural heritage sites in Turkey, Zeugma and Göbeklitepe, a qualitative study was undertaken in order to determine the value creation and co-creation processes occurring from the art–tourism contexts based on comparative case study analysis. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with three groups of actors. Motivation, expectation and stakeholder experiences were the main themes explored. Findings – The findings of the study relate to the role of the co-creation process. Marketing art in alternative places creates value in closing the gap between art and society through the use of related fields such as culture and heritage. In terms of cultural value, the paper identifies the reconnection with cultural heritage through contemporary art. This is a way of looking at culture and its concepts in different time and place dimensions which make visitors more engaged with culture and its contemporary reflection through art. Research limitations/implications – Although the research focusses on two Turkish art and tourism cases, future research can be extended to other countries, including the assessment of the longer-term role of similar activities. Practical implications – As art is a subset of culture, the people who are interested in culture and history also have the potential to be interested in art. While art impacts on cultural tourism, cultural heritage and tourism work as arts marketing tools in a co-supporting way. The coming together of art and culture has societal benefits. There are lessons for practice such as the opening of a space for contemporary art in cultural heritage museums in order to promote art to society. The museum audience is an important potential for the future of art from a market generation perspective. Originality/value – The study contribute to arts tourism, arts marketing and value co-creation in theory and practice.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leader narcissism and defensive silence in higher education: a moderated mediation model of interactional justice and value congruence
    (Dokuz Eylül University, 2020) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel
    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the narcissism of leader and the defensive silence of employee. Specifically, it introduces interactional justice as mediator by taking a relational approach. It also considers the moderating role of leader-follower congruence in the relationship between leader narcissism and defensive silence. The sample included 1,023 randomly selected faculty members and department chairs from 15 universities in Turkey. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested the proposed model. The findings supported the positive relationship between leader narcissism and employee's defensive silence as well as interactional justice's mediating role. Moreover, when the level of congruence of leader-follower value is high, the relationship between leader narcissism and defensive silence is also strong, whereas the relationship is weak when the level of congruence of leader-follower value is low. This study contributes to employee silence literature by revealing the relationship between leader narcissism and employee silence. In addition, this study provides practical assistance to higher education employees along with their leaders interested in building trust, enhancing employee-leader relationships, and reducing defensive silence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Üniversite öğrencileri öğretim elemanlarının başarısını değerlendirebilir mi? ikilemler ve problemler
    (Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, 2002) Collins-Baş, Ayşe
    Öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarını değerlendirmesi (ÖÖED) üniversite düzeyinde bir eğitim kurumunun başarısının değerlendirilmesi alanında en yaygın ve etkin yöntemlerden birisidir (Seldin, 1984). ÖÖED yöntemi öğretim elemanlarının etkinliği konusunda öncelikli bir bilgi kaynağıdır ve bu bilgi eğitim kurumları tarafından hem “biçimlendirici” (formative-öğretim elemanının kendi performansını geliştirmesi) hem de “düzey belirleyici” (summative-öğretim elemanlarının bulundukları konumu korumaları, terfileri ve kıdemleri için) olarak kullanılabilir. Eğer bir üniversite sistemi profesyonel anlamda büyüyecek ise, ne değerlendirmeden kaçabilir ne de toplumun, kullanılan öğretim yöntem ve tekniklerini yargılamadan kabullenmesini bekleyebilir. İnsan öğesi söz konusu olunca belirsizlik kaçınılmazdır. Bu bağlamda kullanılan yöntemin aşamalı olarak gözden geçirilmesi “güvenilirlik” ve “geçerlilik” sağlar (Centra, 1993). Birkaç yöntemin bir arada kullanılması ve bu yöntemlerden birinin ÖÖED olması daha sağlıklıdır. Bu araştırmanın amacı ÖÖED sistemini üniversite ortamında öğrencilerin ve öğretim elemanlarının bakış açılarından incelemektir. Araştırmada hem “nicel” hem de “nitel” araştırma yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, her ne kadar şu anda kullanılan ÖÖED sisteminin güçlü ve zayıf yanları olduğunu gösterse de, yeterli “ön bilgilendirme” ve “yönlendirme” ile sistemin üniversite, öğretim elemanları ve öğrenciler için daha “yapıcı” ve “etkin” hale gelebilecegini göstermektedir.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Kendimizi pazarlayabiliyor muyuz? Yüksek öğretimde küreselleşme ve öğrenci hareketliliği: Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği okullarının karşılaştırması ile ilgili bir örnek çalışma
    (Prof. Dr. Yüksel ÖZTÜRK, 2018) Collins, Ayşe
    Son araştırmalara göre dünya çapında yoğun bir öğrenci hareketliliği gözlemlenmektedir. Bu da eğitim kurumlarının gerekli bilgileri elektronik ortamda sağlamalarını kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır. Bu araştırma turizm ve otel işletmeciliği okullarını resmi web sayfalarında ki bilgilerini kullanarak yapıları, ders programları ve staj programları açısından değerlendirmeyi ve karşılaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Sonuçlar, bütün dünyadan, karşılaştırılan okullar arasında benzerlikler kadar farklılıklar da olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu araştırmanın bulgularının konuyla doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak alakası olan öğrenciler, eğitimciler, sektör çalışanları ve karar vericiler de dahil olmak üzere, eğitim sisteminin tüm paydaşlarına faydalı olması ümit edilmektedir.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Örgütlerde yaratıcı düşünmeyi geliştirme
    (Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dekanlığı, 2004) Bumin, B.; Erkutlu, Hakan
    Creative problem solving and innovation are vital concepts for companies to have competitive advantage. In this study, “developing and improving a creative organizational culture” are examined in detail. In addition, creative problem solving issue for the teams within organizations is mentioned. By cultivating a creative organizational culture, companies are able to utilize their human resources in an efficient way and get novel and powerful ideas, which may provide competitive advantages to them against their competitors.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Müze ziyaretçilerinin bölümlendirilmesi: Ankara örneği
    (Sistem Ofset Bas. Yay. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., 2017) Gürel, Eda
    Bu araştırmanın amacı, kültür turizminin önemli bir unsurunu oluşturan müzelerde, doğru pazarlama stratejilerinin geliştirilebilmesi için, ziyaretçilerin farklılıklarını araştırmaktır. Veri Ankara’da önde gelen beş müzede, 405 ziyaretçiyle yüz yüze yapılan görüşmeler sonucunda toplanmıştır. İki-basamaklı kümeleme analizi kullanılan araştırmada, ziyaretçilerin sosyo-demografik özellikleri, motivasyonları ve serbest zaman tercihleri değerlendirilmiş, iki farklı bölüme ayrıldıkları görülmüştür. Bu bölümler, Peterson’un (1992) kültürel tüketimle ilgili araştırmalarına pararlel olarak, “Kültürel Hepçiller” ve “Müze Tekçilleri” olarak adlandırılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular, müze ziyaretçilerinin bölümlendirilmesinde, tercih edilen serbest zaman etkinlikleri, ziyaret sebebi ve ziyaret sıklıklığının belirleyici olduğunu göstermiştir. Nitekim, Kültürel Hepçiller, özel sergiler nedeniyle müzeleri çoğunlukla yılda beş veya daha fazla kez ziyaret eden, serbest zamanlarında daha çok etkinliğe katılan bireylerden oluşurken, Müze Tekçilleri, müzeleri çoğunlukla yılda bir veya iki kez ziyaret etmekte ve serbest zamanlarında diğer bölüme göre daha az etkinliğe ilgi göstermektedirler. Buna göre, bu bölümlerin tutulması, memnun edilmeleri ve sayılarının artttırılması için farklı pazarlama stratejilerinin geliştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, müzelerin yönetim ve pazarlama faaliyetleriyle ilgili olarak öneriler sunulmuştur.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Focusing on evaluation of teacher development? a model for school-based supervision
    (Türk Eğitim Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi, 2002) Baş-Collins, Ayşe
    ll aspects of work, and even play, require an allusive entity called supervision. Supervision models vary from loosely organized structures, to strict activity overview. The 'instructional supervisory role" may be one or several individuals, working to assist school personnel to perform better. They may be from outside the school (ie. national inspection system) or the principal or department head or senior instructor. As in other countries, Turkey has private and state schools. Both are subject to regular inspection by a centralised National Inspection System. However, in order to overcome shortfalls of the National Inspection System, private schools have established their own teacher evaluation programs. This paper assesses current private school-based supervision practices. It is intended to provide a school-based supervision model, through which private secondary schools may improve their performance and accountability while enhancing teacher quality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Art museum visitor segments: evidence from Italy on omnivores and highbrow univores
    (Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, 2019) Gürel, Eda; Nielsen, A.
    This study segments the various types of art museum visitor using two-step cluster analysis. It goes beyond a simple demographic categorization of visitors and investigates why people visit museums, in particular what experiences they seek in museums based on their preferences and participation in various leisure activities. The sample was selected from among visitors to two art museums in Genoa, Italy. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 400 visitors. The resulting 394 useable questionnaires yielded two clusters – Cultural Omnivores and Art Museum Univores – providing evidence for the omnivore/highbrow univore thesis described in the literature. The data suggest that the experiences visitors look for in museums, their preferences regarding various leisure activities, and their attendance at both highbrow and popular cultural events provide an effective means of segmenting art museum visitors. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors influencing outbound medical travel from the USA
    (Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Collins, Ayşe; Medhekar, A.; Wong, H. Y.; Çobanoğlu, C.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country environment, tourism destination, medical tourismcosts andmedical facilities and services. Design/methodology/approach – Online survey with the help of Amazon Mechanical Turk website was used for data collection, and 541 valid cases were used of American residents who had travelled abroad formedical tourism. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate the scales. Findings – Findings indicated fourmajor factors that can influence American medical tourists’ choices of medical tourism destinations. These factors are overseas’ country factors, attractiveness of tourism destination, medical tourism costs and facilities and services. Both the convergent and discriminant validities for the constructs were established. The results of the measurement-model-fit based on various measures were within the suggested cut-off values. Research limitations/implications – Out of the 541 responses of post-travel experienced medical tourists, it is hard to tell how similar/dissimilar the participants are in terms of ranking the four factors. To be competitive to attract global medical tourists, research suggests that the five popular countries of treatment, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Turkey, identified in this study should provide high quality of medical and tourismfacilities to patients. Originality/value – This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying factors, which influence American medical tourists’ choice of destinations, with validated scales. For this exploratory research, 25 new items together with 34 items from other studies were adapted.