Item Open AccessA qualitative analysis of Turkish stakeholders perspective for improving medical tourism(John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2022-06) Collins, Ayşe; Medhekar, A.; Göknil Şanal, Z.; Collins, AyşeThis qualitative study explores from Turkish medical tourism stakeholders' perspective the supply-side driving factors for improving medical tourism services in Turkey and provides positive healthcare experience to medical travelers. Five groups of stakeholders (27 participants) were interviewed: hospitals/medical centers, medical travel-agencies, medical-legal regulators, government, and non-government organizations. Findings show that Turkey has a dual-sector public and private model of medical tourism service providers. Four interrelated themes with policy implications were generated: medical tourism promotion, logistics and development initiatives, medical cost, hospital quality accreditation, and other issues related to medical-legal, government incentives for Turkish diaspora, and promoting Turkish medical tourism overseas. Item Open AccessChoosing a higher education destination: marketing of where, why and how?(Routledge, 2022-03-13) Collins, Ayşe; Şimşek, H.; Takır, A.; Collins, AyşeThis study attempts to contribute to marketing services in higher education literature through the relationship between international students’ satisfaction with educational experiences and the necessary adjustments by institutions to augment their services. It also aims to make theoretical contributions by understanding the international students’ satisfaction criteria for university selection and enrolment. The findings of the study offer administrative implications for universities as well, regarding how they could appeal to international students by emphasizing components of institutional branding via online and offline marketing communication tools. Quantitative methodology was employed and data was collected through a survey. Sampling strategy was voluntary participation and 197 international students replied to the survey. Findings indicate that international students use personal contacts and social relations in finding international higher education institutions. Further, international students care about the campus culture (safe or not), the physical infrastructure of the university and library resources provided to students. Item Open AccessLeader moral disengagement and follower knowledge hiding. A moderated mediation model of follower Machiavellianism and trust in the leader(Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-07-07) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelPurpose – This study aims to build a moderated mediation model to investigate the roles that trust in the leader and follower Machiavellianism can play in the relationship between moral disengagement of the leader and hiding of knowledge of the followers. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from eight universities in Turkey using a set of 72 matched leader (dean)–follower (faculty member) questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multiple regression, moderated regression and bootstrapping analyses. Findings – The findings reveal that leader moral disengagement positively influences follower knowledge hiding, while trust in the leader mediates this influence and follower Machiavellianism not only moderates the relationship between leader moral disengagement and trust in the leader but also reduces the indirect relationship between leader moral disengagement and follower knowledge hiding through trust in the leader. Research limitations/implications –Even though measurements of research variables were collected from different sources and with time separation, common method bias might have existed. Also, this research is carried out in a single cultural context posing the issue of the generalizability of our findings to other cultural contexts. Originality/value – The main contribution of this study is to construct and investigate a conceptual model that focuses on the possible effect of moral disengagement of the leader on knowledge hiding by the followers. Also, by supporting the mediating role of trust in the leader, this research reveals that followers of leaders with high moral disengagement are more prone to indulge in the hiding of knowledge. Moreover, the moderating role of follower Machiavellianism, found in this study, provides an additional understanding that followers may vary in the degree to which they are sensitive to the leader’s influence. Item Open AccessExploring barriers to social inclusion for disabled people: perspectives from the performing arts(Cambridge University Press, 2021-09-05) Collins, Ayse; Rentschler, R.; Williams, K.; Azmat, F.; Collins, AyseAlthough the potential of arts to promote social inclusion is recognised, barriers to social inclusion for disabled people in the arts is under-researched. Based on 34 semi-structured interviews with disabled people and those without disability from four arts organisations in Australia, the paper identifies barriers for social inclusion for disabled people within performing arts across four dimensions: access; participation; representation and empowerment. Findings highlight barriers are societal, being created with little awareness of needs of disabled people, supporting the social model of disability. Findings have implications beyond social inclusion of disabled people within the arts, demonstrating how the arts can empower disabled people and enable them to access, participate and represent themselves and have a voice. Our framework conceptualises these four barriers for social inclusion for disabled people for management to change. Item Open AccessGender, risk-taking and entrepreneurial intentions: assessing the impact of higher education longitudinally(Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-04-29) Gürel, Eda; Madanoglu, M.; Altinay, L.; Gürel, EdaPurpose This longitudinal study assesses whether higher education has the same impact on the entrepreneurial intentions of women and men with regard to their propensity to risk-taking in particular. Design/methodology/approach A self-administrated survey instrument was used to collect data from students studying business and engineering at five selected universities in Turkey. The survey was carried out in two intervals: first year and fourth year of studies. A total of 215 student participated in both waves. Findings The findings indicate that the impact of education is stronger for women than for men as the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention is moderated by education and risk-taking propensity in that the entrepreneurial intention of women with high or low risk-taking propensity increases when they acquire higher education. In particular, the boost is more noticeable for women with low risk-taking propensity. On the contrary, the effect of education is negative for men with both high risk-taking propensity and low risk-taking propensity. Practical implications This study has identified that the impact of education is different for women and men. Based on these findings, Turkey could offer gender-specific entrepreneurship education in higher education for individuals who could then exploit their entrepreneurial capacity and thus contribute to the social and economic well-being of the country. Originality/value This paper makes two distinct contributions. First, this is one of the few longitudinal studies in the literature which demonstrates the differences between females and males in terms of their entrepreneurial intention and shows how risk-taking and education influence entrepreneurial intention. Second, it offers new insights into entrepreneurship research from a developing-country but emerging-economy context. Item Open AccessDeveloping insights into the link between art and tourism through the value co-creation lens(Emerald, 2020) Gökbulut-Özdemir, Ö.; Fillis, I.; Baş-Collins, Ayşe; Baş-Collins, AyşePurpose – The aim of the study is to gain insight into the link between art and tourism from a value co-creation perspective. This link is discussed with the help of the arts marketing, art tourism and value co-creation literature. The role of art in tourism and the role of cultural places in arts marketing are also evaluated. Design/methodology/approach – Focussing on two cultural heritage sites in Turkey, Zeugma and Göbeklitepe, a qualitative study was undertaken in order to determine the value creation and co-creation processes occurring from the art–tourism contexts based on comparative case study analysis. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with three groups of actors. Motivation, expectation and stakeholder experiences were the main themes explored. Findings – The findings of the study relate to the role of the co-creation process. Marketing art in alternative places creates value in closing the gap between art and society through the use of related fields such as culture and heritage. In terms of cultural value, the paper identifies the reconnection with cultural heritage through contemporary art. This is a way of looking at culture and its concepts in different time and place dimensions which make visitors more engaged with culture and its contemporary reflection through art. Research limitations/implications – Although the research focusses on two Turkish art and tourism cases, future research can be extended to other countries, including the assessment of the longer-term role of similar activities. Practical implications – As art is a subset of culture, the people who are interested in culture and history also have the potential to be interested in art. While art impacts on cultural tourism, cultural heritage and tourism work as arts marketing tools in a co-supporting way. The coming together of art and culture has societal benefits. There are lessons for practice such as the opening of a space for contemporary art in cultural heritage museums in order to promote art to society. The museum audience is an important potential for the future of art from a market generation perspective. Originality/value – The study contribute to arts tourism, arts marketing and value co-creation in theory and practice. Item Open AccessLeader narcissism and defensive silence in higher education: a moderated mediation model of interactional justice and value congruence(Dokuz Eylül University, 2020) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelThis study aims to investigate the relationship between the narcissism of leader and the defensive silence of employee. Specifically, it introduces interactional justice as mediator by taking a relational approach. It also considers the moderating role of leader-follower congruence in the relationship between leader narcissism and defensive silence. The sample included 1,023 randomly selected faculty members and department chairs from 15 universities in Turkey. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested the proposed model. The findings supported the positive relationship between leader narcissism and employee's defensive silence as well as interactional justice's mediating role. Moreover, when the level of congruence of leader-follower value is high, the relationship between leader narcissism and defensive silence is also strong, whereas the relationship is weak when the level of congruence of leader-follower value is low. This study contributes to employee silence literature by revealing the relationship between leader narcissism and employee silence. In addition, this study provides practical assistance to higher education employees along with their leaders interested in building trust, enhancing employee-leader relationships, and reducing defensive silence. Item Open AccessÜniversite öğrencileri öğretim elemanlarının başarısını değerlendirebilir mi? ikilemler ve problemler(Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, 2002) Collins-Baş, Ayşe; Collins-Baş, AyşeÖğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarını değerlendirmesi (ÖÖED) üniversite düzeyinde bir eğitim kurumunun başarısının değerlendirilmesi alanında en yaygın ve etkin yöntemlerden birisidir (Seldin, 1984). ÖÖED yöntemi öğretim elemanlarının etkinliği konusunda öncelikli bir bilgi kaynağıdır ve bu bilgi eğitim kurumları tarafından hem “biçimlendirici” (formative-öğretim elemanının kendi performansını geliştirmesi) hem de “düzey belirleyici” (summative-öğretim elemanlarının bulundukları konumu korumaları, terfileri ve kıdemleri için) olarak kullanılabilir. Eğer bir üniversite sistemi profesyonel anlamda büyüyecek ise, ne değerlendirmeden kaçabilir ne de toplumun, kullanılan öğretim yöntem ve tekniklerini yargılamadan kabullenmesini bekleyebilir. İnsan öğesi söz konusu olunca belirsizlik kaçınılmazdır. Bu bağlamda kullanılan yöntemin aşamalı olarak gözden geçirilmesi “güvenilirlik” ve “geçerlilik” sağlar (Centra, 1993). Birkaç yöntemin bir arada kullanılması ve bu yöntemlerden birinin ÖÖED olması daha sağlıklıdır. Bu araştırmanın amacı ÖÖED sistemini üniversite ortamında öğrencilerin ve öğretim elemanlarının bakış açılarından incelemektir. Araştırmada hem “nicel” hem de “nitel” araştırma yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, her ne kadar şu anda kullanılan ÖÖED sisteminin güçlü ve zayıf yanları olduğunu gösterse de, yeterli “ön bilgilendirme” ve “yönlendirme” ile sistemin üniversite, öğretim elemanları ve öğrenciler için daha “yapıcı” ve “etkin” hale gelebilecegini göstermektedir. Item Open AccessKendimizi pazarlayabiliyor muyuz? Yüksek öğretimde küreselleşme ve öğrenci hareketliliği: Turizm ve Otel İşletmeciliği okullarının karşılaştırması ile ilgili bir örnek çalışma(Prof. Dr. Yüksel ÖZTÜRK, 2018) Collins, Ayşe; Collins, AyşeSon araştırmalara göre dünya çapında yoğun bir öğrenci hareketliliği gözlemlenmektedir. Bu da eğitim kurumlarının gerekli bilgileri elektronik ortamda sağlamalarını kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır. Bu araştırma turizm ve otel işletmeciliği okullarını resmi web sayfalarında ki bilgilerini kullanarak yapıları, ders programları ve staj programları açısından değerlendirmeyi ve karşılaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Sonuçlar, bütün dünyadan, karşılaştırılan okullar arasında benzerlikler kadar farklılıklar da olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu araştırmanın bulgularının konuyla doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak alakası olan öğrenciler, eğitimciler, sektör çalışanları ve karar vericiler de dahil olmak üzere, eğitim sisteminin tüm paydaşlarına faydalı olması ümit edilmektedir. Item Open AccessÖrgütlerde yaratıcı düşünmeyi geliştirme(Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dekanlığı, 2004) Bumin, B.; Erkutlu, Hakan; Erkutlu, HakanCreative problem solving and innovation are vital concepts for companies to have competitive advantage. In this study, “developing and improving a creative organizational culture” are examined in detail. In addition, creative problem solving issue for the teams within organizations is mentioned. By cultivating a creative organizational culture, companies are able to utilize their human resources in an efficient way and get novel and powerful ideas, which may provide competitive advantages to them against their competitors. Item Open AccessMüze ziyaretçilerinin bölümlendirilmesi: Ankara örneği(Sistem Ofset Bas. Yay. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., 2017) Gürel, Eda; Gürel, EdaBu araştırmanın amacı, kültür turizminin önemli bir unsurunu oluşturan müzelerde, doğru pazarlama stratejilerinin geliştirilebilmesi için, ziyaretçilerin farklılıklarını araştırmaktır. Veri Ankara’da önde gelen beş müzede, 405 ziyaretçiyle yüz yüze yapılan görüşmeler sonucunda toplanmıştır. İki-basamaklı kümeleme analizi kullanılan araştırmada, ziyaretçilerin sosyo-demografik özellikleri, motivasyonları ve serbest zaman tercihleri değerlendirilmiş, iki farklı bölüme ayrıldıkları görülmüştür. Bu bölümler, Peterson’un (1992) kültürel tüketimle ilgili araştırmalarına pararlel olarak, “Kültürel Hepçiller” ve “Müze Tekçilleri” olarak adlandırılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular, müze ziyaretçilerinin bölümlendirilmesinde, tercih edilen serbest zaman etkinlikleri, ziyaret sebebi ve ziyaret sıklıklığının belirleyici olduğunu göstermiştir. Nitekim, Kültürel Hepçiller, özel sergiler nedeniyle müzeleri çoğunlukla yılda beş veya daha fazla kez ziyaret eden, serbest zamanlarında daha çok etkinliğe katılan bireylerden oluşurken, Müze Tekçilleri, müzeleri çoğunlukla yılda bir veya iki kez ziyaret etmekte ve serbest zamanlarında diğer bölüme göre daha az etkinliğe ilgi göstermektedirler. Buna göre, bu bölümlerin tutulması, memnun edilmeleri ve sayılarının artttırılması için farklı pazarlama stratejilerinin geliştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, müzelerin yönetim ve pazarlama faaliyetleriyle ilgili olarak öneriler sunulmuştur. Item Open AccessFocusing on evaluation of teacher development? a model for school-based supervision(Türk Eğitim Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi, 2002) Baş-Collins, Ayşe; Baş-Collins, Ayşell aspects of work, and even play, require an allusive entity called supervision. Supervision models vary from loosely organized structures, to strict activity overview. The 'instructional supervisory role" may be one or several individuals, working to assist school personnel to perform better. They may be from outside the school (ie. national inspection system) or the principal or department head or senior instructor. As in other countries, Turkey has private and state schools. Both are subject to regular inspection by a centralised National Inspection System. However, in order to overcome shortfalls of the National Inspection System, private schools have established their own teacher evaluation programs. This paper assesses current private school-based supervision practices. It is intended to provide a school-based supervision model, through which private secondary schools may improve their performance and accountability while enhancing teacher quality. Item Open AccessArt museum visitor segments: evidence from Italy on omnivores and highbrow univores(Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, 2019) Gürel, Eda; Nielsen, A.; Gürel, EdaThis study segments the various types of art museum visitor using two-step cluster analysis. It goes beyond a simple demographic categorization of visitors and investigates why people visit museums, in particular what experiences they seek in museums based on their preferences and participation in various leisure activities. The sample was selected from among visitors to two art museums in Genoa, Italy. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 400 visitors. The resulting 394 useable questionnaires yielded two clusters – Cultural Omnivores and Art Museum Univores – providing evidence for the omnivore/highbrow univore thesis described in the literature. The data suggest that the experiences visitors look for in museums, their preferences regarding various leisure activities, and their attendance at both highbrow and popular cultural events provide an effective means of segmenting art museum visitors. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed. Item Open AccessFactors influencing outbound medical travel from the USA(Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Collins, Ayşe; Medhekar, A.; Wong, H. Y.; Çobanoğlu, C.; Collins, AyşeThe purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country environment, tourism destination, medical tourismcosts andmedical facilities and services. Design/methodology/approach – Online survey with the help of Amazon Mechanical Turk website was used for data collection, and 541 valid cases were used of American residents who had travelled abroad formedical tourism. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate the scales. Findings – Findings indicated fourmajor factors that can influence American medical tourists’ choices of medical tourism destinations. These factors are overseas’ country factors, attractiveness of tourism destination, medical tourism costs and facilities and services. Both the convergent and discriminant validities for the constructs were established. The results of the measurement-model-fit based on various measures were within the suggested cut-off values. Research limitations/implications – Out of the 541 responses of post-travel experienced medical tourists, it is hard to tell how similar/dissimilar the participants are in terms of ranking the four factors. To be competitive to attract global medical tourists, research suggests that the five popular countries of treatment, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Turkey, identified in this study should provide high quality of medical and tourismfacilities to patients. Originality/value – This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying factors, which influence American medical tourists’ choice of destinations, with validated scales. For this exploratory research, 25 new items together with 34 items from other studies were adapted. Item Open AccessLeader’s integrity and employee silence in healthcare organizations(Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelDrawing on the social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between a leader’s behavioral integrity and employee acquiescent silence. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing employee’s relational identification as the mediator. The moderating role of employee political skill, in the relationship between behavioral integrity and employee acquiescent silence, is also considered. Design/methodology/approach – The data of this study encompass 913 front-line nurses from 13 university hospitals in Turkey. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model. Findings – The results of this study support the negative effect of behavioral integrity on employee’s acquiescent silence, as well as the mediating effect of employee’s relational identification. Moreover, when the level of employee political skill is low, the relationship between behavioral integrity and acquiescent silence is strong, whereas the effect is weak when the level of political skill is high. Practical implications – The findings of this study suggest that healthcare administrators’ words and deeds should be consistent while interacting with their subordinates, as it leads to positive interpersonal relationship, which, in turn, lowers employee silence. Moreover, healthcare administrators should pay more attention to the buffering role of employee political skill for those subordinates with low relational identification and higher workplace silence. Originality/value – This study contributes to the literature on workplace silence by revealing the relational mechanism between behavioral integrity and employee silence. This paper also offers a practical assistance to employees in the healthcare industry and their administrators interested in building trust and high-quality manager–employee relationship, as well as lowering workplace silence. Item Open AccessLeader psychopathy and organizational deviance: the mediating role of psychological safety and the moderating role of moral disengagement(Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelThe purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between leader psychopathy and organizational deviance. In particular, the authors introduce employee’s psychological safety as the mediator. Furthermore, the moderating role of moral disengagement in the relationship between leader psychopathy and organizational deviance is also considered. Design/methodology/approach – The data of this study include 611 certified nurses from 9 university hospitals in Turkey. The proposed model was tested by using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Findings – The results of this study supported the positive effect of leader psychopathy on organizational deviance along with the mediating effect of employee’s psychological safety. Furthermore, when the level of moral disengagement is low, the relationship between leader psychopathy and organizational deviance is weak, whereas the effect is strong when the level of moral disengagement is high. Practical implications – The findings of the study recommend that administrators in the healthcare industry ought to be sensitive in treating their subordinates, since it will result in positive organizational relationship, which, subsequently, will certainly reduce organizational deviance. Furthermore, they have to pay more focus on the buffering role of moral disengagement for all those subordinates with high distrust and displaying organizational deviance. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the literature about workplace deviance by uncovering the relational mechanism between leader psychopathy and employee organizational deviance. Furthermore, it includes practical assistance to healthcare employees and their leaders interested in building trust, increasing leader–employee relationship and reducing organizational deviance. Item Open AccessLeader’s integrity and interpersonal deviance: the mediating role of moral efficacy and the moderating role of moral identity(Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelThe purpose of this paper is to posit that leader’s integrity decreases employee’s interpersonal deviance by increasing moral efficacy in the workplace. Specifically, the authors propose that perceptions of moral efficacy serve as a mechanism through which leader’s integrity affects workplace deviance. The authors further argue that the modeled relationships are moderated by moral identity. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from ten universities in Turkey. The sample included 693 randomly chosen faculty members along with their department chairs. Findings – The results of this study supported the negative effect of leader integrity on employee’s interpersonal deviance as well as the mediating effect of moral efficacy. Moreover, when the level of moral identity is high, the relationship between leader integrity and interpersonal deviance is strong, whereas the relationship is weak when the level of moral identity is low. Practical implications – This study’s findings indicate that higher education administrators should be cautious in treating their subordinates, as this will lead to a favorable interpersonal relationship, which in turn will reduce the interpersonal deviance of the subordinate. In addition, the buffering role of the moral identity should be paid more attention, particularly to people with low moral efficacy and high interpersonal deviance. Originality/value – This study contributes to workplace deviance literature by revealing the relation between leader integrity and interpersonal deviance. Furthermore, it offers practical assistance to higher education employees and their leaders concerned with building trust, increasing the relationship between leaders and employees and reducing the interpersonal deviation. Furthermore, it offers practical assistance to higher education employees and their leaders concerned with building trust, increasing the relationship between leaders and employees and reducing the interpersonal deviation. Item Open AccessLeader Machiavellianism and follower silence: the mediating role of relational identification and the moderating role of psychological distance(Emerald Group Publishing, 2019) Erkutlu, H.; Chafra, Jamel; Chafra, JamelDrawing on the social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and employee’s quiescent silence. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing employee’s relational identification as the mediator. The moderating role of psychological distance in the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and quiescent silence is also considered. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from nine universities in Turkey. The sample included 793 randomly chosen faculty members along with their department chairs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model. Findings – The results of this study supported the positive effect of leader Machiavellianism on employee’s quiescent silence as well as the mediating effect of employee’s relational identification. Moreover, when the level of psychological distance is low, the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and quiescent silence is strong, whereas the effect is weak when the level of psychological distance is high. Practical implications – The findings of this study suggest that educational administrators in the higher education should be sensitive in treating their subordinates, as it will lead to positive interpersonal relationship, which, in turn, will reduce workplace silence. Moreover, they should pay more attention to the buffering role of psychological distance for those subordinates with high distrust and showing silence. Originality/value – This study contributes to the literature on organizational silence by revealing the relational mechanism between leader Machiavellianism and employee quiescent silence. The paper also offers a practical assistance to employees in the higher education and their leaders interested in building trust, increasing leader–employee relationship and reducing workplace silence. Item Open AccessExploring the visitors’ perceptions and experiences of museums(Springer, Cham, 2018) Gürel, Eda; Nielsen, Axel; Kozak, M.; Kozak, N.In order to increase visitor numbers and survive in the long run, today’s museums need to understand their visiting publics including cultural tourists. Therefore, this chapter aims to understand various publics, their perceptions and experiences of museums by conducting a qualitative research. The study sample was selected from among the visitors of two main museums in Genoa, Italy. Face-to face interviews were conducted to gather data on the definition of a museum by the visitors. The analyses of 372 usable responses revealed seven core elements of museum visitor experiences which included experiences that provide historical and/ or cultural reminisce and awareness, learning and self-development, exposure to tangible evidences, sensory stimulation, wonder and discovery, entertainment and socializing. Implications are discussed relative to marketing strategies.