Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design

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  • ItemOpen Access
    The construction of Ankara new city: To comprehend the early republican house: Ankara Yeni Şehir’in kuruluşu: Erken Cumhuriyet Konutu’nu anlamak
    (Middle East Technical University, 2022-02-22) Cengizkan, Ali; Cengizkan, Ali
    The Construction of a New Capital: Ankara 1923-1933 research, which ended up in an exhibition and book in 2019, brought to the fore new horizons to comprehend early Republican Turkish architecture, especially in the context of Ankara and housing culture. The research focused on deciphering the housing architecture in the early capital, using scarce architectural documentation. Successful in modelling the Yeni Şehir / New City area of 350 buildings, the documentation of vast number of genuine photographs and postcards of the area reaching more than 1300 in number, along with aerial photographs dated 1936, supported the study. The outcome made it possible to reflect on the new city and neighbourhood formation in the early Republican Capital, with respect to housing design, construction and taskforces in the practice of building construction. This article connects what was already known to what is recently revealed, acknowledging the designer architects, the construction constraints, the available technology with the prevailing construction materials and the capacities of manpower in the era. The zoning, planning and implementation of a new housing neighbourhood, inevitably reflects the historic, administrative and financial capacities and limitations of those who organize the development; along with demarking their intellectual capacities and revealing the expectations and cultural diversities of the future owners and tenants. © 2022
  • ItemOpen Access
    Urban heat island data by local weather types in Lisbon metropolitan area based on Copernicus climate variables dataset for European cities
    (Elsevier Inc., 2022-06) Reis, Cláudia; Lopes, António; Nouri, Andre Santos; Nouri, Andre Santos
    Here we provide Urban Heat Island (UHI) by local weather types (LWT) maps for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA). These maps were produced from the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service climate variables dataset that contains hourly air temperature raster data for 100 European cities (2008-2017), namely Lisbon and part of its metropolitan area. Over 61000 maps (2008-2014) were extracted in NetCDF format and processed in geographic-information-systems (GIS). An urban mask was created from the recently updated Local Climate Zones (LCZ) classification for this area and a cell of the LCZ class “Low Plants” (non-urban) was chosen to calculate the temperature difference. UHI intensity was estimated using an R script. The outputs of this process were divided by thermal seasons and LWT. Ultimately, average UHI intensity by LWT was estimated. Average UHI according to meteorological conditions is available in GeoTIFF raster format (Appendix 1), with a spatial resolution of 100 × 100m pixels, as well as hourly average UHI for each LWT (Appendix 2 to 16). This data may provide valuable information for urban planners, designers and architects in the process of pinpointing recurrent hot and cool spots/neighborhoods in the city and its heating/cooling degrees. Moreover, these maps may contribute to a construction of an early warning system that anticipates which weather conditions we might expect an significant increase in thermal discomfort on those critical areas in the city. © 2022
  • ItemOpen Access
    Towards the adoption of most suitable green walls within sustainable buildings using interval type-2 fuzzy best-worst method and TOPSIS technique
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2022-11-08) Tabatabaee, S.; Ashour, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, H.; Hoseini, S. A.; Mohandes, S. R.; Mahdiyar, A.; Ismail, S.; Hosseini, M. R.; Ashour, Mojtaba
    Purpose – To come up with a prudent decision on the installation of an appropriate green wall (GW) on buildings, this study presents a novel decision-making algorithm. The proposed algorithm considers the importance of barriers hampering GW adoption, as well as their relationships with regard to different types of GWs existing in a contextual setting. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed methodological approach is based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques by employing focus group discussion, fuzzy-based best-worst method and fuzzy TOPSIS. Findings – Based on the experiences of qualified experts involved in related projects in Hong Kong, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) cost, installation and maintenance-related barriers are perceived to have the highest importance, (2) modular living wall system is the most suitable GW system for the context of Hong Kong and (3) existing barriers are found to have a pivotal role in the ranking of the most suitable GW systems. Practical implications – The findings provide valuable insight not only for policymakers and stakeholders, but also for establishing a methodological approach that can assist decision-makers in identifying the most beneficial GW system rather than the most applicable one. This could have significant implications and introduce potential changes to the common way of practice within the industry and lay the foundation for wider adoption of GW. Originality/value – While previous studies have investigated the sustainability-related issues of GW façade applications, the current body of knowledge is deprived of a comprehensive methodological approach for the selection of the most suitable GW systems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Distress, anxiety, boredom, and their relation to the interior spaces under COVID-19 lockdowns
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2022-08-12) Diker, Berk; Demirkan, Halime; Diker, Berk; Demirkan, Halime
    Purpose – This research is based on the idea that interior elements leave a wide variety of impressions on their occupants and that some interiors are likely to have more positive impressions than others. These impressions are especially prevalent when an individual cannot leave their homes for extended periods. The architectural elements of an interior where people are isolated can mitigate the adverse psychological effects. Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted by surveying individuals under lockdown because of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 140 participants completed three different scales (GAD-7, K10, FTB Scale) to measure mental health problems often experienced in isolated and confined environments. Their responses were then associated with the interior environments of the participants. Findings – Statistically significant relationships were identified between the reported interiors and the results of the psychological evaluations. The level of psychological distress was associated with Volume and Visual Variety factors. Susceptibility to generalized anxiety disorder was associated with Visual Variety and Airiness factors. Finally, free time boredom was associated with Volume, Visual Variety, and Airiness factors. The Furniture and Clutter factor did not significantly contribute to any of the psychological evaluations. Originality/value –The study was performed in response to the severe lockdown measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It successfully highlighted the need for a rethinking of interior design approaches regarding the design for isolated and confined environments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Defining local extreme heat thresholds and Indoor Cooling Degree Necessity for vulnerable residential dwellings during the 2020 summer in Ankara – Part I: Air temperature
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-10-29) Andre Santos, Nouri; Çalışkan, Onur; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Cheval, Sorin; Matzarakis, A.; Andre Santos, Nouri
    This study discusses the preliminary assessment of Indoor Cooling Degree Necessity (ICDN) based upon the standard air temperature (Ta) value of 22 °C which is defined to be the standard upper mean temperature limit (Tl) for interior comfort as defined by the WHO. By considering indoor air temperature (TaI), levelled oscillations above Tl are utilised to determine indoor temperature extremes/frequencies at a 10 min temporal resolution during the months of July and August 2020 in Ankara. These recordings were undertaken through the use of an interior in-situ Meteorological Station (MS), simultaneously, an outdoor in-situ MS was also mounted outside the naturally ventilated dwelling with the identical measurement interval period. Moreover, to supplement the encompassing outdoor data collection, two WMO MSs were utilised in the study to account for both encompassing local peri-urban Esenboga (EMS) and Ankara's urban (AMS) outdoor air temperatures (TaO) at a 1 h temporal resolution. In addition to the ICDN's identified variation of Tl levels, which frequently remained between +7 °C and +10 °C during periods of accentuated urban outdoor heat stress; their direct/latent cause-and-effect relationship with newly defined local extreme heat thresholds were established. Relative to July and August 2020, a total of 19 Very Hot Days (VHD33), 10 Monthly Tropical Night (MRT20), and 4 Heatwave Events (HWE31) were determined. These thresholds further underlined the growing need to associate indoor and outdoor heat stress during local extreme heat events, particularly in more vulnerable residential contexts; and moreover, in an era of increasing heat stress as result of rapid urbanisation and climate change. © 2021 The Authors
  • ItemOpen Access
    Analysis of Residential lighting in Poland: Results from a winter term survey
    (2021-09-01) Pracki, P.; Aslanoğlu, R.; Kazak, J. K.; Ulusoy, B.; Yekanialibeiglou, Sepideh; Yekanialibeiglou, Sepideh
    In 2020, an international project on residential lighting started and was implemented in four countries (Poland, Sweden, UK and Turkey). This article presents the results of a survey carried out in Poland, in the winter term between November 2020 and January 2021. A total of 125 Polish residents (59 women, 65 men, one person did not wish to specify gender) participated in the survey. A variety of data was collected on the respondents and their assessments as well as on their satisfaction with day- and artificial lighting in residential living spaces. The results from questionnaires were analyzed with STATISTICA 13.3. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were adopted to identify the light-related aspects, lighting patterns, and respondents’ perception of day- and artificial lighting conditions in living areas. The results revealed that satisfaction with daylighting in the living area, both in summer and winter, was significantly correlated with daylighting level, daylighting uniformity, sunlight exposure and view-out. The results also revealed that satisfaction with artificial lighting was significantly correlated with artificial lighting level, artificial lighting uniformity and color rendering. The results provide valuable information on lighting and factors that influence the luminous environment in residential living spaces.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Pluralist production of urban form: towards a parametric development control for unity in diversity
    (Routledge, 2022-04-04) Çalışkan, O.; Barut, Yavuz Baver; Barut, Yavuz Baver
    The contemporary city is (re)produced in fragments through numerous typological variations. However, the current practice of spatial planning has yet to suggest effective control mechanisms to steer the piecemeal (trans)formation of cities. This paper argues for parametric modelling as a method of guiding fragmentary developments towards the pluralist production of coherent urban fabrics. Following the parametric definition of the basic morphological codes, the paper discusses the computational capacity of parametric modelling to simulate multiple variations in local fabrics and their consecutive integration within a larger context. The proposed model is tested in the context of Istanbul, Turkey.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effects of salience and ordinal position of exhibit objects on visitor attention in digital exhibitions
    (Routledge, 2022-06-08) Zıraman, Ayça Turgay; İmamoğlu, Çağrı; Zıraman, Ayça Turgay; İmamoğlu, Çağrı
    The aims of the present experiments were to investigate the impact of (a) ordinal position, (b) object salience (size and three-dimensionality), and (c) proximity to salient objects on visitor attention in digital exhibitions, and to make comparisons with trends observed in physical exhibitions. The results of two experiments involving 210 participants, conducted using a tablet computer, indicated that (a) the ordinal position and salience effects observed in physical exhibitions were also present in the digital medium; (b) however, the overshadowing effect by the salient objects on the adjacent ones observed in physical exhibitions did not seem to emerge when three-dimensionality was the salience parameter; and (c) the negative impact of the salient object’s presence on the overall attention to the exhibition observed in physical exhibitions seemed to be eliminated in digital exhibition environments regardless of the salience parameter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessing urban heat island effects through local weather types in Lisbon's Metropolitan Area using big data from the Copernicus service
    (Scopus, 2022-04-19) Reis, C.; Lopes, A.; Nouri, A. Santos; Nouri, A. Santos
    In this study UHI in Lisbon's Metropolitan Area (LMA) is analyzed through Local Weather Types (LWT) using an air temperature dataset produced by Copernicus. Over 61,000 hourly air temperature maps between 2008 and 2014 are extracted, divided into thermal seasons and LWT, and UHI is calculated by the anomaly between each raster cell and a pixel from “Low Plants” Local Climate Zone (LCZ) class. UHI daily cycle is analyzed by LWT. Statistical analysis shows that rainy days produce lower median UHI intensities (close to 0 °C), while sunny days, especially very cold winter days, produce higher UHI intensities (median values close to 1,5 °C). Analysis of the UHI pattern displays a S/SE-N/NW dichotomy in the right bank of the Tagus river and an N-S dichotomy in the Peninsula of Setúbal. The UHI effect is more pronounced in Lisbon, particularly in the riverfront area, and on the opposite bank of Tagus due to the shelter effect of frequent N winds. As previous studies have proven, UHI in LMA is mainly a nighttime phenomenon. This methodology may help decision makers to identify critical heating districts as well as weather conditions most conducive to a significant overheating of the urban atmosphere. © 2022
  • ItemRestricted
    The application of the physiologically equivalent temperature to determine impacts of locally defined extreme heat events within vulnerable dwellings during the 2020 summer in Ankara
    (Elsevier, 2022-03-09) Santos Nouri, A.; Charalampopoulos, I.; Matzarakis, A.; Santos Nouri, A.
    This study addresses the limited work related to Heat Stress (HS) vulnerability within indoor/outdoor contexts and its relationship with local Extreme Heat Events (EHEs). Centred upon Ankara, the study focuses on building upon its weaker approach to human thermophysiological vulnerabilities in an era of climate change, and unregulated urban densification. Through newly defined local EHEs, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) (and its cumulative derivatives), were utilised to develop the limited approaches that utilise Energy Based Models in the scope of EHE risk management. The study was undertaken by processing hourly data from 2008 to 2020 from Ankara's Meteorological Station, and Esenboga Meteorological Station. At a finer 10 min resolution, an interior Kestrel Heat-stress Station was used to assess summer thermal conditions in 2020 within a thermally vulnerable, yet still very frequent, residential Turkish construction typology. Among other outcomes, the results indicated the permanency of indoor PET that remained above 27 °C during non EHE periods. In the case of a Very Hot Day (VHD33), PET remained between 29 and 32.9 °C for almost 24 h. The thermal index also indicated how forced convective cooling led to indoor reductions of PET by 3–4 K, and in duration of such HS levels to less than 2 h. © 2022
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in a virtual outpatient polyclinic
    (Elsevier, 2021-12-28) Dalirnaghadeh, Donya; Yilmazer, Semiha; Dalirnaghadeh, Donya
    This study examines the impact of the sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in a virtual outpa- tient polyclinic. Outpatient polyclinics have a salient role in determining early outpatient treatments of COVID- 19 to prevent hospitalization or death and reduce the burden on hospitals. However, they have not been widely investigated in the literature. The studies on spatial knowledge have identified environmental elements mainly related to vision with no focus on sound. Currently, there is limited research on the effect of sound environment on spatial knowledge acquisition in virtual outpatient polyclinics. In this study, a virtual simulated outpatient polyclinic has been created with varying levels of visual and audio cues. Eighty participants were assigned to one of the four groups: a control (no visual signage), a visual (visual signage), an only audio (no landmarks and no visual signage), and an audio-visual group. The virtual environment was presented as a video walkthrough with passive exploration to test spatial knowledge acquisition with tasks based on the landmark-route-survey model. The results showed that a combination of visual signage and sound environment resulted in higher spatial knowledge acquisition. No significant difference was found between the performance of the visual group and the control group that shows that signage alone cannot aid spatial knowledge in virtual outpatient polyclinics. Data from the only audio group suggests that landmarks associated with sound can compensate for the lack of visual landmarks that may help design a wayfinding system for users with visual disabilities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of climate zone and orientation angle on the recurring massing school typologies in Turkey
    (Springer Singapore, 2022-09-30) Afacan, Yasemin; Afacan, Yasemin; Littlewood, John R.; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi C.
    In this study, the impact of different climate zones on same massing typologies of a typical school building with different orientation angles was quantified through building energy simulations of a case building in Turkey. The most schools in Turkey do not comply with the current energy code because they were built prior to the code. Thus, there is a crucial need to investigate their energy efficiency for potential retrofits. The results of the study exemplified how the breakdowns in energy use and carbon emissions would significantly influence design decision-making process of a school. Considering the four climate scenarios, mainly the influence of an orientation angle on energy use intensity (EUI) is higher than its influence on carbon emissions. This study differed from other sustainability researches in terms of defining building massing in schools with an emphasis on environmentally climate responsive school design, which is a holistic approach and comprehensive understanding of high-performance energy efficiency. A climate responsive massing should address the questions beyond well-known standards, and define a new holistic model that uses the optimum orientation, and surface to volume ratio of the building to reduce energy loads and achieve high-performance energy efficiency.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Study of physical and mechanical properties of aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate and clay (AEP/C) board
    (Elsevier, 2022-12-26) Mercan, Elif; Yilmazer, Semiha; Mercan, Elif; Yilmazer, Semiha
    The aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate and clay (AEP/C) composite boards were produced, and physical and mechanical properties were investigated. The aerogel modification of expanded perlite aggregate was carried out with optimization of the two-step acid-base catalyzed sol–gel method. The perlite shrinkage under high-temperature annealing was prevented by covering perlite surfaces with aerogel modification. The boards with aerogel-modified expanded perlite aggregate (AEP) wrapped by clay matrix were successfully produced. The unit volume mass (UVM) and specific gravity (SG) of AEP/C boards slightly increased to 0.55 ± 0.01 g/cm3 and 2.36 ± 0.01, respectively. On the other hand, produced AEP/C boards’ volume of voids of 36.23 ± 1.05 and water absorption (WA) of 83.91 ± 0.49 % were moderately lower than EPA/C. The mechanical strength of the AEP/C composite boards remained almost unchanged with 0.73 ± 0.04 N/mm2, and the aerogel modification had practically no effect on the mechanical strength of composite boards.
  • ItemOpen Access
    New ıslamic urbanism: The architecture of public and private space in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-02) Batuman, Bülent; Batuman, Bülent
  • ItemOpen Access
    Visual perception of the built environment in virtual reality: a systematic characterization of human aesthetic experience in spaces with curved boundaries
    (American Psychological Association, 2022-07-04) Boz, Tuğçe Elver; Demirkan, Halime; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşe; Boz, Tuğçe Elver; Demirkan, Halime; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşe
    Visual perception of architectural spaces and human aesthetic experience in these spaces have recently received considerable interest in cognitive science. However, it has been difficult to construe a common understanding of aesthetic experience for architectural space, since different studies use different scales to measure aesthetic experiences. In this interdisciplinary study spanning cognitive science and architecture, we aim to provide an empirically driven systematic characterization of human aesthetic experience and investigate what aspects of the architectural spaces affect aesthetic experience. To this end, we manipulated various architectural variables including the shape of the curvilinear boundaries of architectural spaces as well as their size, light, texture, and color in virtual reality. We then had people evaluate these spaces by exhausting a large list of commonly used scales in the literature and applied principal component analysis to reveal the key dimensions of aesthetic experience. Our findings suggest that human aesthetic experience can be reduced to 3 key dimensions, namely familiarity, excitement, and fascination. Each of these dimensions are differentially affected by the various architectural variables revealing their differences. In sum, our study provides a comprehensive framework to characterize human aesthetic experience in virtual architectural spaces with curved boundaries.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A comparative study on indoor soundscape assessment via a mixed method: A case of the high school environment
    (Elsevier, 2022-02-28) Çankaya Topak, Sıla; Yılmazer, Semiha; Çankaya Topak, Sıla; Yılmazer, Semiha
    Environments for learning-teaching activities require optimum acoustical conditions since students learning attitudes are directly related to verbal speaking. However, optimum acoustical conditions are not enough to provide acoustic comfort to students. To explore the acoustic requirements of educational spaces, there is a need to understand the role of sound and in which factors auditory perception of stu- dents changes. This study explores the relationship between auditory perception and the built environ- ment in a high school. It aims to provide design guidelines for educational facilities using the systematic categorization that defines the comparison between classroom and computer laboratory spaces in _Ihsan Dog ̆ramacı Foundation Bilkent High School. To understand the existing acoustic conditions in a selected educational facility, Equivalent Continuous A-Weighted Sound Level (LAeq), Reverberation Time (T30), and Speech Transmission Index (STI) were measured. This mixed method study includes quantitative and qualitative research methods. Data was collected through multiple instruments, including a ques- tionnaire survey (n = 117) and semi-structured interviews (n = 50). The data analyses were conducted using SPSS v.20 statistical software and applying the method of Grounded Theory (GT). The results show that the auditory perception of students does not only depend on sound levels since the responses towards sound sources and sound levels changed depending on the context of the space (such as the lec- ture content or the students’ task). The conceptual framework presented the relations between the built environment, acoustic environment, and auditory perception of students. The results of this research were interpreted for possible improvement directions, providing a guideline for designers to shape the auditory quality of future educational spaces
  • ItemEmbargo
    Barriers to the practice of sustainable interior architecture and design for interior renovations: A Parsimonious-Cybernetic Fuzzy AHP approach
    (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-30) Ashour, Mojtaba; Mahdiyar, A.; Haron, S. H.; Hanafi, M. H.; Ashour, Mojtaba
    While the notion of sustainability has long been a major concern in the built environment, the practice of sustainable interior architecture and design still falls short. This study aimed to identify and analyse barriers to the practice of sustainable interior architecture and design. To this end, after identifying 30 potential obstacles through a review of literature, a two-round Enhanced Fuzzy Delphi Method involving 13 qualified experts was employed resulting in the exclusion of 10, and the addition of one new barrier. To prioritise the remaining, a novel Parsimonious Cybernetic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was introduced, significantly reducing the number of pairwise comparisons and eliminating the need for a complicated AHP questionnaire. Results showed the highest prioritised barriers are: (1) lack of sufficient sustainability modules in the education of interior architects/designers, (2) designers' lack of experience and technical understanding, (3) lack of codes, regulations and specific legal frameworks designed for different types of projects, (4) lack of interest from the client, and (5) designers’ lack of training. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for professional interior architects/designers, educators, statutory authorities, governments, and policymakers. Considering the dearth of existing literature on this topic, the present study fills this gap by providing a comprehensive list of barriers to sustainable interior architecture and design, establishes the groundwork for future research to build upon, and introduces a novel P-CFAHP that has not been employed before.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The psychological impact of COVID‑19 quarantine on children, and the role of parental support and physical environment design
    (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021-09-28) Aljunaidy, Mais M.; Adi, Mohamad Nadim; Aljunaidy, Mais M.; Adi, Mohamad Nadim
    Coronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious infection that caused a global lockdown and affected children who needed to stay home. There is a lack of knowledge about the role of parental stress and physical environment design on children’s mental wellbeing in quarantine. We hypothesis that COVID-19 quarantine affected child mental health, and that paternal stress or support, and child physical environment including household space, colors, sunlight exposure, and natural views, impacted child mental wellbeing in the quarantine. To assess the effect of quarantine on a child’s mental health, an online survey was administered globally through scientific organizations and social media. Those over 18 years old, and guardians of children were asked to participate in the survey. The survey was filled by 114 guardians from 31 countries. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Most participants experienced stress in the quarantine and reported child anxiety symptoms including focus reduction, sleeping difficulties, and appetite changes. Family fun activities and encouraging words, were mostly successful in reducing child anxiety. Reporting anxiety symptoms in children were more common in parents who had mental hardships compared to those who did not experience mental problems or had an improved mental status. Physical environment assessment showed that households with bright walls associated with fewer reports of child mental problems compared to households with neutral wall colors, and that most guardians thought that their children’s living space was not sufficient to play and study. Architects can provide evidence-based recommendations for customers to support children’s mental health.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessing the influence of street configurations on human thermal conditions in open balconies in the Mediterranean climate
    (Elsevier, 2021-10-04) Rodríguez-Algeciras, J.; Tablada, A.; Nouri, Andre Santos; Matzarakis, A.; Nouri, Andre Santos
    Heat stress in the built environment has become a serious health and comfort issue, given the increases in Urban Heat Island effects, and augmenting impacts associated to climate change. This study deals with the potential correlations between human thermal conditions, the encircling microclimate, and the physical structure of the city. Through long-term numerical simulations, the disclosed study analyses the influence of the urban street configurations on the thermal bioclimate within urban canyons, specifically upon open balconies in the most populated district of Barcelona: The Eixample. The simulated thermal conditions were carried out in the human biometeorological RayMan Pro model using local climatic data, to determine the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) within four generated scenarios, with similar morphological properties of the Eixample district. The findings reveal that streets with axes oriented NS and SE-NW provide the best thermal conditions for balconies, achieving acceptable PET values (18 °C < PET <29 °C) on both façades. On the other hand, EW streets presented high thermal stress conditions (over 43,4% of the time) for those balconies located in the north side of the canyon. Open balconies at heights below 12 metres are the most comfortable ones during summer daytime, with acceptable thermal conditions that range between 50,4% and 82,5% of the time. The highest frequencies of acceptable thermal conditions were found on balconies located at 6 metres and 9 metres high on the east, south and southeast façades of the NS, EW and NE-SW oriented streets respectively (from 77% to 83% of the time). These configurations provide the most suitable thermal conditions during the studied summer periods by having frequencies of heat stress below 20%. Our results and recommendations contribute to bridge the gap between human biometeorology, public health, and architectural and urban planning. Some areas of its direct application are the use of balconies in periods of confinement; decision-making on the sale or rental of apartments; and the promotion of bioclimatic retrofit projects at an urban and architectural scale supported by local governments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Educating the mindful design practitioner
    (Elsevier, 2021-05-06) Altay, Burçak; Porter, N.; Altay, Burçak
    Mindfulness applications are increasing exponentially across many disciplines. However, mindfulness theory and practice within design pedagogy is relatively scarce. What are the operational concepts and applications of mindfulness for acquiring design skills and ethical awareness? We explore these questions through a theoretical framework and two university-based studies where design students engaged in various mindfulness activities. Results show that meditation practices (formal mindfulness) and adopting a mindful approach to design tasks (informal mindfulness) can facilitate exploratory and creative thinking, increase sensory and spatial awareness, ‘free up’ one’s inner critic, and expand students’ empathetic horizons. These outcomes suggest mindfulness training is fruitful for the holistic development of students, supporting them to be truly reflective practitioners who creatively attend to the wellbeing of others and themselves.