Browsing Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design by Issue Date
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Item Open AccessA knowledge-based space planning system(Taylor & Francis, 1992) Demirkan, H.; Pultar, M.; Özgüç, B.Knowledge-based systems are potentially powerful tools for improving the results of automated or interactive design procedures. Expert Space Planner is a prototype of such a system that uses production rules in the spatial planning of panel houses. © 1992 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Item Open AccessA proposal for 'correction values' for winter outdoor design temperatures(Elsevier, 1996) Demirbilek F. N.; Yener, C.This study aims to find a correlation between winter outdoor design temperature (WDT) and mass of the building envelope. The daily variations of the inside surface temperatures and heal fluxes of the walls under various climatic conditions and different wall constructions have been calculated by a computer program based on the response factor technique, which uses variable outside air temperature and solar radiation and constant inside air temperature values as input climatic data. The analysis of the relation between mass of the walls and inside surface heat fluxes resulted with the correction values for winter design temperature (WDTCV) depending on the mass of the wall and on the direction of facades for different climatic zones. Item Open AccessSilent interruptions urban encounters with rural Turkey(University of Washington Press, 1997) Nalbantoğlu, Gülsüm Baydar; Bozdoğan, S.; Kasaba, R.The architecture of rural Turkey has been a recurrent theme in the grand narrative of modern Turkish architecture. It was captured by a wave of nationalist and regionalist interests in the 1930s and early 1940s, valued by disappointed modernists in the 1960s, and rediscovered for its consumptive value in the 1980s. In the earlier phases, the proponents of regionalism had to draw careful distinctions between an ideal, sanitized, and immaculate rural imaginary and the unenviable state of real Turkish villages. Paradoxically perhaps, the rural imaginary privileged the model of an ideal, clean, orderly city and used it as a cultural and physical exemplar. 1 The impossibility of realizing this impeccable model became apparent after the unprecedented urban migrations of the 1950s onward-articulated with other social, political, and economic forces beyond the scope of this essay-which threatened the sanitized, controllable, and homogeneous urban vision of the republic's early leaders. The material effects of this process remain at the core of contemporary cultural studies in Turkey. Opinions are divided. While some lament the phenomenon, interpreting it as the evaporation of the last hopes of the Kemalist vision of cultural modernity, others celebrate it as a much desired plurality that strikes the final blow to homogenizing, elitist, and sterile attempts to create culture from above. This essay is written from a position calling for the opening up of a third space that neither authorizes "one" nor privileges "many." It attempts to uncover a cultural-architectural space of difference that disrupts preconstructed identities and essences, contesting plurality as a multiplication of sociological totalities; a space in which both essentialist constructions and relativist celebrations are avoided; a space of translation across the urban-rural boundaries set up by the nation's founding fathers. Item Open AccessThe distribution of urban public services: The case of parks and recreational services in Ankara(Pergamon, 1997) Erkip(Beler), F.The provision of urban services is a central issue in urban planning and development. The distribution of these services to guarantee their effective utilization is another focus of concern. As citizens are heterogeneous in character, their access to urban public services is affected by the distribution of those services. Access to some services with fixed facilities is limited by the location of the service within a city. In this study, which focuses on the city of Ankara, Turkey, the parks and recreational facilities are evaluated in terms of both service and user characteristics. Since the service has a merited reputation due to the public and its free provision, a local government aiming for a just distribution claims to distribute the service 'equally' on a geographical basis. This study evaluates the current policy and proposes distributional justice to achieve a truly equitable distribution, which is sensitive to the characteristics of different citizen groups, instead of the territorial justice (i.e. park distribution based on geography) that cannot satisfy the conditions of effective utilization. Item Open AccessForeign investment in producer services: the Turkish experience in the post-1980 period(Liverpool University Press, 1998) Tokatlı, N.; Erkip, FeyzanSince 1980, Turkey has been changing its growth strategy from protectionist import substitution to one more market-oriented and outward looking. As the restructuring has unfolded, the domestic market has opened up to foreigners. This paper discusses the increasing involvement in the economy of producer service firms with foreign capital. We describe 278 such firms: when they entered the Turkish market, their countries of origin (mostly European Community countries), industry groups and ownership structure. The most popular choice of location has been Istanbul. Item Open AccessInvolving the elderly in the design process(Taylor & Francis, 1998) Demirbilek (Saritabak), O.; Demirkan, H.Based on the concept of'aging in place', a prescriptive model is proposed, aiming at the creation of a usable, safe and attractive built environment where the elderly residents are actively involved in the design process through collaboration sessions. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been adapted to develop an evaluation and translation method for the collected data of the elderly end-users. Item Open AccessHousing conditions and activities of the middle-income Turkish household(Ural and Associates, 1998) Demirkan, Halime; Kutlusoy, SibelThe aim of this research is to study kitchen related space and storage requirements of residential units considering women's activity and practice patterns; and define current problems related to the kitchen of social houses in Turkey. It must be recognized that architects and designers have a responsibility to support changing lifestyles. The standards and performance specifications of the kitchen should be formed urgently, in order to improve the housing conditions in Turkey. Item Open AccessToward postcolonial openings: rereading Sir Banister Fletcher's history of architecture(The MIT Press, 1998-04) Baydar Nalbantoğlu, Gülsüm Item Open AccessA context-specific interface model for architectural design in the virtual environment(Taylor & Francis, 1998-09) Senyapili, B.; Özgüç, B.There is an ongoing debate on the success of architectural software in meeting the designers' wishes and in being familiar to the way designers design. One dominant belief is that as architectural software introduces a work environment closer to that of the paper-based techniques, the efficiency of the use of such software in the profession will increase. We argue that it is not the question of making the digital environment familiar to the paper-based, but designing interfaces through which the users will be able to customize the digital environment according to their wishes. This study introduces a context-specific transformation model to convert a state in the 'user+need space' to a digital aid in the virtual design space. This model incorporates a customization scale menu (CSM) to act with the menu options of the architectural software. In this model, the menu options are customized through the selections made on the CSM by the user. These selections will determine the required level of interaction between the software and the user, thus customizing the digital environment according to the user's needs. Item Open AccessEffects of different lighting arrangements on space perception(Taylor & Francis, 1999) Manav, B.; Yener, C.The idea to improve the quality of lighting design in interior spaces has gained importance in the last years. This experimental study concentrateson the quality of lighting and the relation between lighting arrangements and perception. A room having four different lighting arrangements was prepared and the differences between the perception of the participants under each lighting arrangement was analysed. The results suggested that different lighting arrangements affect perception. Wall washing enhanced the impressions of clarity and order, cove lighting enhanced spaciousness and order and uplighting made the same space relaxing, private and pleasant. Item Open AccessInvasion of personal space under the condition of short-term crowding: a case study on an Automatic Teller Machine(Academic Press, 1999-06) Kaya, N.; Erkip, F.This study is an investigation of the effects of short-term crowding on the invasion of personal space. The analysis was carried out by means of research designed for automatic teller machine (ATM) users in Ankara. The activity, withdrawing money from an ATM, requires certain levels of privacy which may vary with the personal characteristics of the individuals. Among these, sex of the user is considered an important factor. Also, situational variables such as density conditions have an effect on interpersonal distance. The survey was carried out through participant observation and short interviews with the users under two - low and high - density conditions. It was found that personal space was invaded more under high density conditions and when the space was perceived as narrower. However, this did not cause a significant difference in the privacy requirements of the users as they mostly preferred a private space under both density conditions. Sex did not appear to be a dominating factor in this choice although people of opposite sexes tended to keep longer distances between them. The only difference was the females' approach to males which was more distant than males approach to females. Utilizing the findings of this research, appropriate design solutions for an indoor ATM hall were proposed. Item Open AccessA design decision support system model for the wet space renovation of elderly people's residences(Taylor & Francis, 2000) Sagdic, Y.; Demirkan H.This paper discusses the problems that need to be considered when elderly people renovate their houses, and particularly the wet spaces, because they do not fulfil the needs and the requirements of the elderly for aging in place. Therefore field research was conducted in order to identify the variables that are influencing the renovation decisions of Turkish elderly people. Based upon the findings, a comparison of the results of the empirical study with the proposed solutions of design guide books is made. The collected data are used to develop Design Decision Support System (DDSS) model for the wet space renovation of the residences used by Turkish Elderly. Item Open AccessSpatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation: A case study in a shopping mall(SAGE, 2000) Dogu, U.; Erkip, F.Although wayfinding and orientation in complex buildings is an important criterion for environmental behavior, research on the subject remains limited and the issue is not considered sufficiently during the design process. This article examines the factors that affect wayfinding behavior of individuals in a shopping mall and explains how their behaviors are influenced by factors such as building configuration, visual accessibility, circulation systems, and signage. The case study conducted in a mall in Turkey draws a sample profile of Turkish society from a wayfinding point of view. The relation between wayfinding behavior and shopping activity is discussed. The results show that people did not find the signage system sufficient. Although they found the mall an easy setting from the wayfinding point of view, they still required better solutions to find specific destinations such as telephone booths, restrooms, or stores located in parts of the building that were not visually accessible. Item Open AccessThe conceptual basis of building ethics(Routledge, 2000) Pultar, Mustafa; Fox, W.The nature of building(s) and people’s attitudes towards them are determined by two types of factors: and among the latter, ethical predicates are probably the environmental cultural. most influential; not only because they determine how buildings are evaluated by people, but also because they form the basic precepts through which professionals act in designing and constructing them, and through which resources are allocated in competition with other socio-economic needs. Item Open AccessBeyond lack and excess: other architectures/other landscapes(Taylor & Francis, 2000) Nalbantoglu, G. B.Familiar binary categories of architecture such as Western/regional, high style/vernacular and modern/primitive are crucial in guarding its disciplinary boundaries. In the first part of my article, by analyzing a number of paradigmatic architectural texts, I argue that notions of lack and excess are instrumental in maintaining the largely superimposed binary constructions of West/non-West and architecture/nonarchitecture. Then, through a particular reading of a non-Western site, I explore ways of rethinking the categories of architecture and non-Western beyond such binary oppositions. Item Open AccessThe 16 cubes game for children who are visually impaired(Sage Publications, Inc., 2000) Evyapan, N. A. G. Z.; Demirkan, H. Item Open AccessCollaborating with elderly end-users in the design process(Springer, London, 2000) Demirbilek, O.; Demirkan, Halime; Scrivener, S. A. R.; Ball, L. J.; Woodcock, A.The fact that end-users can participate and contribute to the design process, was pointed out in previous studies on user participation to the design process conducted by Cavanagh (1996), Ciccantelli and Magidson (1993), Mitchell (1995), Morini and Pomposini (1996), and Reich et al (1996). For Howes, et al (1998), participatory design is a design methodology, European in origin, giving an important contributory role to the end-user in the development of products they would eventually use. This paper presents a study (Demirbilek, 1999) in which elderly end-users were invovled in the design process by means of participatory design sessions. In these sessions, the expertise of designers and the comments and ideas of elderly end-users were applied to how doors and door handles for domestic use should be designed. Two different design sessions were run for each group of elderly end-users. Item Open AccessPrivacy dimensions: a case study in the interior architecture design studio(Academic Press, 2000-03) Demirbas, O. O.; Demirkan, H.The most commonly used space in architectural education is the studio, which functions both as a learning centre and as a complex social organization. The behavioural elements in the design studio are analysed with respect to the social processes of environmental psychology; namely privacy, personal space, territoriality and crowding. A case study was conducted to evaluate the differences between the desired and actual conditions of a design studio in the Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design at Bilkent University. The expectations and preferences of the interior architecture students pertaining to the design studio were analysed by considering the sex differences in patterns of privacy preferences and the results of this study are expected to be used as input for a new design studio. Results showed that there was no difference between preferences of solitude, reserve, anonymity, and isolation among sexes. Although there was a significant difference among sexes where females preferred intimacy with family and males preferred intimacy with friends.