Item Open AccessGeneration of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre–Gaussian beams(Elsevier, 2004-07-01) Volpe, Giovanni; Petrov, D.; Volpe, GiovanniWe propose a novel method to efficiently produce light beams with radial, azimuthal, and hybrid polarization, through a few-mode fiber excited by a Laguerre–Gaussian beam. With different input polarization we can selectively excite different combinations of modes from the LP11 group. We propose to show how to transform the output beam into a cylindrical vector beam in free-space through various polarization transformations. Item Open AccessSurface plasmon radiation forces(The American Physical Society, 2006-06) Volpe, Giovanni; Quidant, R.; Badenes, G.; Petrov, D.; Volpe, GiovanniWe report the first experimental observation of momentum transfer from a surface plasmon to a single dielectric sphere. Using a photonic force microscope, we measure the plasmon radiation forces on different polystyrene beads as a function of their distance from the metal surface. We show that the force magnitude at resonance is strongly enhanced compared to a nonresonant illumination. Measurements performed as a function of the probe particle size indicate that optical manipulation by plasmon fields has a strong potential for optical sorting. Item Open AccessTorque detection using brownian fluctuations(The American Physical Society, 2006-11-24) Volpe, Giovanni; Petrov, D.; Volpe, GiovanniWe report the statistical analysis of the movement of a submicron particle confined in a harmonic potential in the presence of a torque. The absolute value of the torque can be found from the auto- and cross-correlation functions of the particle’s coordinates. We experimentally prove this analysis by detecting the torque produced onto an optically trapped particle by an optical beam with orbital angular momentum. Item Open AccessQuantitative assessment of non-conservative radiation forces in an optical trap(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2009-05) Pesce, G.; Volpe, Giovanni; De Luca, A. C.; Rusciano, G.; Volpe, G.; Volpe, GiovanniThe forces acting on an optically trapped particle are usually assumed to be conservative. However, the presence of a non-conservative component has recently been demonstrated. Here, we propose a technique that permits one to quantify the contribution of such a non-conservative component. This is an extension of a standard calibration technique for optical tweezers and, therefore, can easily become a standard test to verify the conservative optical force assumption. Using this technique, we have analyzed optically trapped particles of different size under different trapping conditions. We conclude that the non-conservative effects are effectively negligible and do not affect the standard calibration procedure, unless for extremely low-power trapping, far away from the trapping regimes usually used in experiments. Item Open AccessNovel perspectives for the application of total internal reflection microscopy(Optical Society of America, 2009-12) Volpe, Giovanni; Brettschneider, T.; Helden, L.; Bechinger, C.; Volpe, GiovanniTotal Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) is a sensitive non-invasive technique to measure the interaction potentials between a colloidal particle and a wall with femtonewton resolution. The equilibrium distribution of the particle-wall separation distance z is sampled monitoring the intensity I scattered by the Brownian particle under evanescent illumination. Central to the data analysis is the knowledge of the relation between I and the corresponding z, which typically must be known a priori. This poses considerable constraints to the experimental conditions where TIRM can be applied (short penetration depth of the evanescent wave, transparent surfaces). Here, we introduce a method to experimentally determine I(z) by relying only on the distance-dependent particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions. We demonstrate that this method largely extends the range of conditions accessible with TIRM, and even allows measurements on highly reflecting gold surfaces where multiple reflections lead to a complex I(z). Item Open AccessInfluence of noise on force measurements(The American Physical Society, 2010-04) Volpe, Giovanni; Helden, L.; Brettschneider, T.; Wehr, J.; Bechinger, C.; Volpe, GiovanniWe demonstrate how the ineluctable presence of thermal noise alters the measurement of forces acting on microscopic and nanoscopic objects. We quantify this effect exemplarily for a Brownian particle near a wall subjected to gravitational and electrostatic forces. Our results demonstrate that the forcemeasurement process is prone to artifacts if the noise is not correctly taken into account. Item Open AccessMicroswimmers in patterned environments(The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011-07-14) Volpe, Giovanni; Buttinoni, I.; Vogt, D.; Kümmerer, H.- J.; Bechinger, C.; Volpe, GiovanniTiny self-propelled swimmers capable of autonomous navigation through complex environments provide appealing opportunities for localization, pick-up and delivery of microscopic and nanoscopic objects. Inspired by motile cells and bacteria, man-made microswimmers have been created and their motion in homogeneous environments has been studied. As a first step towards more realistic conditions under which such microswimmers will be employed, here we study, experimentally and with numerical simulations, their behavior in patterned surroundings that present complex spatial features where frequent encounters with obstacles become important. To study the microswimmers as a function of their swimming behavior, we develop a novel species of microswimmers whose active motion is due to the local demixing of a critical binary liquid mixture and can be easily tuned by illumination. We show that, when microswimmers are confined to a single pore whose diameter is comparable with their swimming length, the probability of finding them at the confinement walls significantly increases compared to Brownian particles. Furthermore, in the presence of an array of periodically arranged obstacles, microswimmers can steer even perpendicularly to an applied force. Since such behavior is very sensitive to the details of their specific swimming style, it can be employed to develop advanced sorting, classification and dialysis techniques. Item Open AccessPrinted multilayer superstructures of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes for electronic applications(American Chemical Society, 2007-10) Kang, S. J.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Kim, H.-S.; Cao, Q.; Meitl, M. A.; Khang, D.-Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunWe developed means to form multilayer superstructures of large collections of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) configured in horizontally aligned arrays, random networks, and complex geometries of arrays and networks on a wide range of substrates. The approach involves guided growth of SWNTs on crystalline and amorphous substrates followed by sequential, multiple step transfer of the resulting collections of tubes to target substrates, such as high-k thin dielectrics on silicon wafers, transparent plates of glass, cylindrical tubes and other curved surfaces, and thin, flexible sheets of plastic. Electrical measurements on dense, bilayer superstructures, including crossbars, random networks, and aligned arrays on networks of SWNTs reveal some important characteristics of representative systems. These and other layouts of SWNTs might find applications not only in electronics but also in areas such as optoelectronics, sensors, nanomechanical systems, and microfluidics. Item Open AccessMolecular scale buckling mechanics in individual aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes on elastomeric substrates(American Chemical Society, 2008) Khang, D. -Y.; Xiao, J.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; MacLaren, S.; Banks, T.; Jiang, H.; Huang, Y. Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunWe have studied the scaling of controlled nonlinear buckling processes in materials with dimensions in the molecular range (i.e., ∼1 nm) through experimental and theoretical studies of buckling in individual single-wall carbon nanotubes on substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The results show not only the ability to create and manipulate patterns of buckling at these molecular scales, but also, that analytical continuum mechanics theory can explain, quantitatively, all measurable aspects of this system. Inverse calculation applied to measurements of diameterdependent buckling wavelengths yields accurate values of the Young’s moduli of individual SWNTs. As an example of the value of this system beyond its use in this type of molecular scale metrology, we implement parallel arrays of buckled SWNTs as a class of mechanically stretchable conductor. Item Open AccessA 500 MHz carbon nanotube transistor oscillator(American Institute of Physics, 2008-09) Pesetski, A. A.; Baumgardner, J. E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, H.; Adam, J. D.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Banks, T.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunOperation of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (FET) oscillator at a record frequency of 500 MHz is described. The FET was fabricated using a large parallel array of single-walled nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition on ST-quartz substrates. Matching of the gate capacitance with a series inductor enabled greater than unity net oscillator loop gain to be achieved at 500 MHz. Item Open AccessAlignment controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on quartz substrates(American Chemical Society, 2009-09-11) Xiao, J.; Dunham, S.; Liu, P.; Zhang, Y.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Moh, L.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K. -C.; Lu, C.; Huang, W.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunSingle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess extraordinary electrical properties, with many possible applications in electronics. Dense, horizonally aligned arrays of linearly configured SWNTs represent perhaps the most attractive and scalable way to implement this class of nanomaterial in practical systems. Recent work shows that templated growth of tubes on certain crystalline substrates yields arrays with the necessary levels of perfection, as demonstrated by the formation of devices and full systems on quartz. This paper examines advanced implementations of this process on crystalline quartz substrates with different orientations, to yield strategies for forming diverse, but welldefined horizontal configurations of SWNTs. Combined experimental and theoretical studies indicate that angle-dependent van der Waals interactions can account for nearly all aspects of alignment on quartz with X, Y, Z, and ST cuts, as well as quartz with disordered surface layers. These findings provide important insights into methods for guided growth of SWNTs, and possibly other classes of nanomaterials, for applications in electronics, sensing, photodetection, light emission, and other areas. Item Open AccessHigh-frequency performance of submicrometer transistors that use aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes(American Chemical Society, 2009-04-08) Kocabaş, Coşkun; Dunham, S.; Cao, Q.; Cimino, K.; Ho, X.; Kim, H.-S.; Dawson, D.; Payne, J.; Stuenkel, M.; Zhang, H.; Banks, T.; Feng, M.; Rotkin, S. V.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunThe unique electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) make them promising candidates for next generation electronics, particularly in systems that demand high frequency (e.g., radio frequency, RF) operation. Transistors that incorporate perfectly aligned, parallel arrays of SWNTs avoid the practical limitations of devices that use individual tubes, and they also enable comprehensive experimental and theoretical evaluation of the intrinsic properties. Thus, devices consisting of arrays represent a practical route to use of SWNTs for RF devices and circuits. The results presented here reveal many aspects of device operation in such array layouts, including full compatibility with conventional small signal models of RF response. Submicrometer channel length devices show unity current gain (ft) and unity power gain frequencies (fmax) as high as ∼5 and ∼9 GHz, respectively, with measured scattering parameters (S-parameters) that agree quantitatively with calculation. The small signal models of the devices provide the essential intrinsic parameters: saturation velocities of 1.2 × 107 cm/s and intrinsic values of ft of ∼30 GHz for a gate length of 700 nm, increasing with decreasing length. The results provide clear insights into the challenges and opportunities of SWNT arrays for applications in RF electronics. Item Open AccessDistributed contact flip chip InGaN/GaN blue LED; comparison with conventional LEDs(Elsevier, 2019) Genç, M.; Sheremet, Volodymyr; Elçi, M.; Kasapoğlu, A.; Altuntaş, İ.; Demir, İ.; Eğin, G.; İslamoğlu, Serkan; Gür, E.; Muzafferoğlu, N.; Elagöz, S.; Gülseren, Oğuz; Aydınlı, A.; Sheremet, Volodymyr; İslamoğlu, Serkan; Gülseren, OğuzThis paper presents high performance, GaN/InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) in three different device configurations, namely Top Emitting (TE) LED, conventional Flip Chip (FC) and Distributed Contact (DC) FC. Series resistances as low as 1.1 Ω have been obtained from FC device configurations with a back reflecting ohmic contact of Ni/Au/RTA/Ni/Ag metal stack. A small shift has been observed between electroluminescence (EL) emissions of TE LED and the FC LEDs. In addition, FWHM value of the EL emission of DCFC LED has shown the minimum value of 160 meV (26.9 nm). Furthermore, DCFC LED configuration has shown the highest quantum efficiency and power output, with 330 mW at 500 mA current injection, compared to that of traditional wire bonded TE LEDs and the conventional FC LEDs. Item Open AccessEthnic conflict and gender inequality in education: the case of Turkey(Routledge, 2018-04) Kılınç, Ramazan; Neathery-Castro, J.; Akyüz, Selin; Kılınç, Ramazan; Akyüz, SelinAlthough conflict remains a major obstacle to development in many areas of the world, its impact on education has been rarely studied. This article investigates the relationship between conflict and gender equality, focusing on the schooling of the girls in the conflict-ridden regions of Turkey. Patriarchy is the most important determinant of low educational levels among girls in Southeastern Turkey. However, ethnic conflict exacerbates male-dominant traditions and blocks economic development, reinforcing patriarchal norms and limiting girls’ school attendance. Yet, by provoking political mobilization around a Kurdish identity, ethnic conflict may undermine patriarchy and unintentionally promote girls’ education. Item Open AccessGrowth and characterization of nanocrystalline SrTiOx films: room temperature deposition using RF sputtering system in a pure argon environment(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2017-05) Bayrak, Türkan; Goldenberg, Eda; Bayrak, Türkan; Goldenberg, EdaWe report a comprehensive description of the structure, optical and electrical properties of asdeposited and annealed SrTiOx (STO) thin films. Nanocrystalline STO films were deposited on p-type Si (1 0 0) and UV-grade fused silica substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature in a pure argon environment. Well adhered and transparent films with very smooth surfaces were obtained. As-deposited films showed 70% transparency in the visible spectrum, transparency increased to 77% after annealing at 700 °C. The direct and indirect optical band gaps were found to be 2.88 eV and 2.44 eV, for as-deposited films. For annealed films, indirect band gap increased to 2.57 eV while the direct optical band gap value remained constant. Upon annealing, the refractive indices (n) of the films decreased from 2.36 to 2.32. Ag/STO/p-Si device structures were also fabricated and characterized by current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and dielectric measurements. The calculated values are compared with experimental data from the literature and discussed in terms of device performances. A butterfly loop-type hysteresis curve was observed for the voltage-dependent capacitance measurement in annealed thin film devices. Dielectric constants were calculated as 31.7 and 57.4 for as-deposited and annealed films at 100 kHz, respectively. Charge storage capacity was found to be >4.5 μC cm-2 for as-deposited and 3.5 μC cm-2 for annealed films. Item Open AccessNegative refraction and subwavelength focusing using photonic crystals(SPIE, 2005-01) Özbay, Ekmel; Aydın, Koray; Alıcı, Kamil Boratay; Güven, Kaan; Özbay, Ekmel; Aydın, Koray; Güven, Kaan; Alıcı, Kamil BoratayWe review certain novel optical properties of two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals (PCs) which exhibit negative refraction behavior. We investigate two mechanisms which utilize the band structure of the PC and lead to a negative effective index of refraction (neff < 0). The negative refraction phenomenon is demonstrated experimentally and by simulations when the incident beam couples to a photonic band with neff < 0. Further, the PC slab acts like a focusing lens to an omnidirectional source where the properties of focusing depends on the details of the band structure. In one case, by utilizing the TM polarized first band, an image of the source can be formed in the vicinity of the interface with subwavelength resolution. In another case, a TE polarized upper band is used which is able to focus the omnidirectional field far away from the interface with a resolution on par with the wavelength. In the latter case, we explicitly show the flat lens behavior of the structure. These examples indicate that PC based lenses can surpass limitations of conventional lenses and greatly enhance and extend optics applications. Item Open AccessExperimental analysis of true left-handed behaviour and transmission properties of composite metamaterials(Elsevier, 2005-12) Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Özbay, Ekmel; Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Özbay, EkmelWe report the true left-handed transmission of a composite metamaterial (CMM) consisting of periodically stacked split-ring resonator (SRR) and wire elements. The negative permeability (μ < 0) gap is demonstrated explicitly by comparing SRR and closed-ring resonator structures. We confirm experimentally that the plasma cut-off frequency of the CMM is determined by the combined dielectric response of SRR and wire elements, and it is much lower than that of the wire-only medium. This is crucial to identify the left-handed transmission bands of the CMM. We further investigate the effect of intralayer and interlayer disorder on the transmission spectrum of CMM arising from misaligned fabrication and stacking of the SRR layers. We found that the intralayer disorder affects the μ < 0 gap of SRRs and the left-handed transmission band of CMM significantly, whereas the SRR transmission is rather immune to interlayer disorder. Item Open AccessSpectroscopic ellipsometric study of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 using parametric models(Wiley, 2008-05) Basa, P.; Petrik, P.; Fried, M.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, Atilla; Foss, S.; Finstad, T. G.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, AtillaGe-rich SiO2 layers on top of Si substrates were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 layers were formed by high temperature annealing. The samples were measured and evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Effective medium theory (EMT) and parametric semiconductor models have been used to model the dielectric function of the layers. Systematic dependences of the layer thickness and the oscillator parameters have been found on the annealing temperature (nanocrystal size). Item Open AccessSpectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens(American Physical Society, 2004-11) Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Alıcı, Kamil Boratay; Soukoulis, C. M.; Özbay, Ekmel; Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Alıcı, Kamil Boratay; Özbay, EkmelWe report the spectral refraction analysis and focusing properties of a two-dimensional, dielectric photonic crystal (PC) slab in freespace. A transverse electric polarized upper band of the crystal is used. The measured refraction spectra indicates that a highly isotropic negative index of refraction is present in the measured frequency range of the band. We demonstrate experimentally and numerically the focusing of the field emitted from an omnidirectional source placed in front of the crystal. Both the source and the focus pattern are away from the PC interfaces of the order of several wavelengths. The focus pattern mimics the arbitrary lateral and longitudinal shifts of the source, which is a manifestation of true flat lens behavior. Item Open AccessComparison of electron and hole charge-discharge dynamics in germanium nanocrystal flash memories(AIP Publishing, 2008-02) Akça, İmran B.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, Atilla; Turan, R.; Akça, İmran B.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, AtillaElectron and hole charge and discharge dynamics are studied on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown metal-oxide-silicon germanium nanocrystal flash memory devices. Electron and hole charge and discharge currents are observed to differ significantly and depend on annealing conditions chosen for the formation of nanocrystals. At low annealing temperatures, holes are seen to charge slower but to escape faster than electrons. They discharge slower than electrons when annealing temperatures are raised. The results suggest that discharge currents are dominated by the interface layer acting as a quantum well for holes and by direct tunneling for elec-trons.