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Item Open AccessA 500 MHz carbon nanotube transistor oscillator(American Institute of Physics, 2008-09) Pesetski, A. A.; Baumgardner, J. E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, H.; Adam, J. D.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Banks, T.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunOperation of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (FET) oscillator at a record frequency of 500 MHz is described. The FET was fabricated using a large parallel array of single-walled nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition on ST-quartz substrates. Matching of the gate capacitance with a series inductor enabled greater than unity net oscillator loop gain to be achieved at 500 MHz. Item Open Access83 W, 3.1 MHz, square-shaped, 1 ns-pulsed all-fiber-integrated laser for micromachining(Optical Society of America, 2011-08-29) Özgören, Kıvanç; Öktem, Bülent; Yılmaz, Sinem; İlday, F. Ömer; Eken, K.; Özgören, Kıvanç; Öktem, Bülent; Yılmaz, Sinem; İlday, F. ÖmerWe demonstrate an all-fiber-integrated laser based on off-the-shelf components producing square-shaped, 1 ns-long pulses at 1.03 mu m wavelength with 3.1 MHz repetition rate and 83 W of average power. The master-oscillator power-amplifier system is seeded by a fiber oscillator utilizing a nonlinear optical loop mirror and producing incompressible pulses. A simple technique is employed to demonstrate that the pulses indeed have a random chirp. We propose that the long pulse duration should result in more efficient material removal relative to picosecond pulses, while being short enough to minimize heat effects, relative to nanosecond pulses commonly used in micromachining. Micromachining of Ti surfaces using 0.1 ns, 1 ns and 100 ns pulses supports these expectations. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America Item Open AccessAlignment controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on quartz substrates(American Chemical Society, 2009-09-11) Xiao, J.; Dunham, S.; Liu, P.; Zhang, Y.; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Moh, L.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K. -C.; Lu, C.; Huang, W.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunSingle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess extraordinary electrical properties, with many possible applications in electronics. Dense, horizonally aligned arrays of linearly configured SWNTs represent perhaps the most attractive and scalable way to implement this class of nanomaterial in practical systems. Recent work shows that templated growth of tubes on certain crystalline substrates yields arrays with the necessary levels of perfection, as demonstrated by the formation of devices and full systems on quartz. This paper examines advanced implementations of this process on crystalline quartz substrates with different orientations, to yield strategies for forming diverse, but welldefined horizontal configurations of SWNTs. Combined experimental and theoretical studies indicate that angle-dependent van der Waals interactions can account for nearly all aspects of alignment on quartz with X, Y, Z, and ST cuts, as well as quartz with disordered surface layers. These findings provide important insights into methods for guided growth of SWNTs, and possibly other classes of nanomaterials, for applications in electronics, sensing, photodetection, light emission, and other areas. Item Open AccessComparison of electron and hole charge-discharge dynamics in germanium nanocrystal flash memories(AIP Publishing, 2008-02) Akça, İmran B.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, Atilla; Turan, R.; Akça, İmran B.; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, AtillaElectron and hole charge and discharge dynamics are studied on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown metal-oxide-silicon germanium nanocrystal flash memory devices. Electron and hole charge and discharge currents are observed to differ significantly and depend on annealing conditions chosen for the formation of nanocrystals. At low annealing temperatures, holes are seen to charge slower but to escape faster than electrons. They discharge slower than electrons when annealing temperatures are raised. The results suggest that discharge currents are dominated by the interface layer acting as a quantum well for holes and by direct tunneling for elec-trons. Item Open AccessCoupled plasmonic cavities on moire surfaces(Springer, 2010-08) Balcı, Sinan; Karabıyık, Mustafa; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, Atilla; Balcı, Sinan; Karabıyık, Mustafa; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, AtillaSurface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides formed by coupled plasmonic cavities on metallic Moire surfaces have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. The Moire surface, fabricated by interference lithography, contains periodic arrays of one-dimensional cavities. The coupling strength between the cavities has been controlled by changing the periodicities of the Moire surface. The ability to control the coupling strength allows us to tune the dispersion and the group velocity of the plasmonic coupled cavity mode. Reflection measurements and numerical simulation of the array of SPP cavities have shown a coupled resonator type plasmonic waveguide band formation within the band gap. Coupling coefficients of cavities and group velocities of SPPs are calculated for a range of cavity sizes from weakly coupled regime to strongly coupled regime. Item Open AccessDirect imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons(Optical Society of America, 2011-08) Balcı, Sinan; Karademir, Ertuğrul; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, Atilla; Balcı, Sinan; Karademir, Ertuğrul; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, AtillaIn this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations. Item Open AccessDistributed contact flip chip InGaN/GaN blue LED; comparison with conventional LEDs(Elsevier, 2019) Genç, M.; Sheremet, Volodymyr; Elçi, M.; Kasapoğlu, A.; Altuntaş, İ.; Demir, İ.; Eğin, G.; İslamoğlu, Serkan; Gür, E.; Muzafferoğlu, N.; Elagöz, S.; Gülseren, Oğuz; Aydınlı, A.; Sheremet, Volodymyr; İslamoğlu, Serkan; Gülseren, OğuzThis paper presents high performance, GaN/InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) in three different device configurations, namely Top Emitting (TE) LED, conventional Flip Chip (FC) and Distributed Contact (DC) FC. Series resistances as low as 1.1 Ω have been obtained from FC device configurations with a back reflecting ohmic contact of Ni/Au/RTA/Ni/Ag metal stack. A small shift has been observed between electroluminescence (EL) emissions of TE LED and the FC LEDs. In addition, FWHM value of the EL emission of DCFC LED has shown the minimum value of 160 meV (26.9 nm). Furthermore, DCFC LED configuration has shown the highest quantum efficiency and power output, with 330 mW at 500 mA current injection, compared to that of traditional wire bonded TE LEDs and the conventional FC LEDs. Item Open AccessElectro-optic and electro-absorption characterization of InAs quantum dot waveguides(Optical Society of America, 2008-03) Akça, İmran B.; Dana, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, Atilla; Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Fiore, A.; Dağlı, N.; Akca, İmran B.; Dana, Aykutlu; Aydınlı, AtillaAbstract Optical properties of multilayer InAs quantum dot waveguides, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, have been studied under applied electric field. Fabry-Perot measurements at 1515 nm on InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures yield a significantly enhanced linear electro-optic efficiency compared to bulk GaAs. Electro-absorption measurements at 1300 nm showed increased absorption with applied field accompanied with red shift of the spectra. Spectral shifts of up to 21% under 18 Volt bias was observed at 1320 nm. (C) 2008 Optical Society of America. Item Open AccessEthnic conflict and gender inequality in education: the case of Turkey(Routledge, 2018-04) Kılınç, Ramazan; Neathery-Castro, J.; Akyüz, Selin; Kılınç, Ramazan; Akyüz, SelinAlthough conflict remains a major obstacle to development in many areas of the world, its impact on education has been rarely studied. This article investigates the relationship between conflict and gender equality, focusing on the schooling of the girls in the conflict-ridden regions of Turkey. Patriarchy is the most important determinant of low educational levels among girls in Southeastern Turkey. However, ethnic conflict exacerbates male-dominant traditions and blocks economic development, reinforcing patriarchal norms and limiting girls’ school attendance. Yet, by provoking political mobilization around a Kurdish identity, ethnic conflict may undermine patriarchy and unintentionally promote girls’ education. Item Open AccessExperimental analysis of true left-handed behaviour and transmission properties of composite metamaterials(Elsevier, 2005-12) Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Özbay, Ekmel; Güven, Kaan; Aydın, Koray; Özbay, EkmelWe report the true left-handed transmission of a composite metamaterial (CMM) consisting of periodically stacked split-ring resonator (SRR) and wire elements. The negative permeability (μ < 0) gap is demonstrated explicitly by comparing SRR and closed-ring resonator structures. We confirm experimentally that the plasma cut-off frequency of the CMM is determined by the combined dielectric response of SRR and wire elements, and it is much lower than that of the wire-only medium. This is crucial to identify the left-handed transmission bands of the CMM. We further investigate the effect of intralayer and interlayer disorder on the transmission spectrum of CMM arising from misaligned fabrication and stacking of the SRR layers. We found that the intralayer disorder affects the μ < 0 gap of SRRs and the left-handed transmission band of CMM significantly, whereas the SRR transmission is rather immune to interlayer disorder. Item Open AccessFiber amplification of pulse bursts up to 20 μj pulse energy at 1 kHz repetition rate(Optical of Society of America, 2011-08-23) Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Eken, K.; İlday, F. Ömer; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; İlday, F. ÖmerWe demonstrate burst-mode operation of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Groups of pulses with a temporal spacing of 10 ns and 1 kHz overall repetition rate are amplified to an average pulse energy of ∼20 μJ and total burst energy of 0:25 mJ. The pulses are externally compressed to ∼400 fs. The amplifier is synchronously pulsed-pumped to minimize amplified spontaneous emission between the bursts. We characterize the influence of pump pulse duration, pump-to-signal delay, and signal burst length. Item Open AccessFiber laser-microscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological samples(Optical Society of America, 2012-02-22) Yavaş, Seydi; Erdoğan, Mutlu; Gürel, Kutan; İlday, F. Ömer; Eldeniz, Y. B.; Tazebay, Uygar H.; Yavaş, Seydi; Erdoğan, Mutlu; Gürel, Kutan; İlday, F. Ömer; Tazebay, Uygar H.We report on the development of a ultrafast fiber lasermicroscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological targets. A mode-locked Yb-fiber laser oscillator generates few-nJ pulses at 32.7 MHz repetition rate, amplified up to ~125 nJ at 1030 nm. Following dechirping in a grating compressor, ~240 fs-long pulses are delivered to the sample through a diffraction-limited microscope, which allows real-time imaging and control. The laser can generate arbitrary pulse patterns, formed by two acousto-optic modulators (AOM) controlled by a custom-developed fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) controller. This capability opens the route to fine optimization of the ablation processes and management of thermal effects. Sample position, exposure time and imaging are all computerized. The capability of the system to perform femtosecond photodisruption is demonstrated through experiments on tissue and individual cells. Item Open AccessGeneration of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre–Gaussian beams(Elsevier, 2004-07-01) Volpe, Giovanni; Petrov, D.; Volpe, GiovanniWe propose a novel method to efficiently produce light beams with radial, azimuthal, and hybrid polarization, through a few-mode fiber excited by a Laguerre–Gaussian beam. With different input polarization we can selectively excite different combinations of modes from the LP11 group. We propose to show how to transform the output beam into a cylindrical vector beam in free-space through various polarization transformations. Item Open AccessGrating based plasmonic band gap cavities(Optical Society of American (OSA), 2009-08) Şenlik, S. Seçkin; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Aydınlı, Atilla; Şenlik, S. Seçkin; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Aydınlı, AtillaWe report on a comparative study of grating based plasmonic band gap cavities. Numerically, we calculate the quality factors of the cavities based on three types of grating surfaces; uniform, biharmonic and Moiré surfaces. We show that for biharmonic band gap cavities, the radiation loss can be suppressed by removing the additional grating component in the cavity region. Due to the gradual change of the surface profile in the cavity region, Moiré type surfaces support cavity modes with higher quality factors. Experimentally, we demonstrate the existence of plasmonic cavities based on uniform gratings. Effective index perturbation and cavity geometries are obtained by additional dielectric loading. Quality factor of 85 is obtained from the measured band structure of the cavity. © 2009 Optical Society of America. Item Open AccessGrowth and characterization of nanocrystalline SrTiOx films: room temperature deposition using RF sputtering system in a pure argon environment(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2017-05) Bayrak, Türkan; Goldenberg, Eda; Bayrak, Türkan; Goldenberg, EdaWe report a comprehensive description of the structure, optical and electrical properties of asdeposited and annealed SrTiOx (STO) thin films. Nanocrystalline STO films were deposited on p-type Si (1 0 0) and UV-grade fused silica substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature in a pure argon environment. Well adhered and transparent films with very smooth surfaces were obtained. As-deposited films showed 70% transparency in the visible spectrum, transparency increased to 77% after annealing at 700 °C. The direct and indirect optical band gaps were found to be 2.88 eV and 2.44 eV, for as-deposited films. For annealed films, indirect band gap increased to 2.57 eV while the direct optical band gap value remained constant. Upon annealing, the refractive indices (n) of the films decreased from 2.36 to 2.32. Ag/STO/p-Si device structures were also fabricated and characterized by current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and dielectric measurements. The calculated values are compared with experimental data from the literature and discussed in terms of device performances. A butterfly loop-type hysteresis curve was observed for the voltage-dependent capacitance measurement in annealed thin film devices. Dielectric constants were calculated as 31.7 and 57.4 for as-deposited and annealed films at 100 kHz, respectively. Charge storage capacity was found to be >4.5 μC cm-2 for as-deposited and 3.5 μC cm-2 for annealed films. Item Open AccessHigh frequency performance of individual and arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2012-05-28) Balcı, Osman; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Balcı, Osman; Kocabaş, CoşkunWe have studied the high frequency performance limits of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors in the diffusive transport regime limited by the acoustic phonon scattering. The relativistic band structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes combined with the acoustic phonon scattering provides an analytical model for the charge transport of the radio frequency transistors. We were able to obtain the intrinsic high frequency performance such as the cut-off frequency and the linearity of the SWNT transistors. We have extended our model to include transistors based on arrays of SWNTs. The effect of electrostatic screening in a dense array of SWNTs on the cut-off frequency is studied. Item Open AccessHigh-frequency performance of submicrometer transistors that use aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes(American Chemical Society, 2009-04-08) Kocabaş, Coşkun; Dunham, S.; Cao, Q.; Cimino, K.; Ho, X.; Kim, H.-S.; Dawson, D.; Payne, J.; Stuenkel, M.; Zhang, H.; Banks, T.; Feng, M.; Rotkin, S. V.; Rogers, J. A.; Kocabaş, CoşkunThe unique electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) make them promising candidates for next generation electronics, particularly in systems that demand high frequency (e.g., radio frequency, RF) operation. Transistors that incorporate perfectly aligned, parallel arrays of SWNTs avoid the practical limitations of devices that use individual tubes, and they also enable comprehensive experimental and theoretical evaluation of the intrinsic properties. Thus, devices consisting of arrays represent a practical route to use of SWNTs for RF devices and circuits. The results presented here reveal many aspects of device operation in such array layouts, including full compatibility with conventional small signal models of RF response. Submicrometer channel length devices show unity current gain (ft) and unity power gain frequencies (fmax) as high as ∼5 and ∼9 GHz, respectively, with measured scattering parameters (S-parameters) that agree quantitatively with calculation. The small signal models of the devices provide the essential intrinsic parameters: saturation velocities of 1.2 × 107 cm/s and intrinsic values of ft of ∼30 GHz for a gate length of 700 nm, increasing with decreasing length. The results provide clear insights into the challenges and opportunities of SWNT arrays for applications in RF electronics. Item Open AccessInfluence of noise on force measurements(The American Physical Society, 2010-04) Volpe, Giovanni; Helden, L.; Brettschneider, T.; Wehr, J.; Bechinger, C.; Volpe, GiovanniWe demonstrate how the ineluctable presence of thermal noise alters the measurement of forces acting on microscopic and nanoscopic objects. We quantify this effect exemplarily for a Brownian particle near a wall subjected to gravitational and electrostatic forces. Our results demonstrate that the forcemeasurement process is prone to artifacts if the noise is not correctly taken into account. Item Open AccessInvestigation of high frequency performance limit of graphene field effect transistors(American Institute of Physics, 2010-10) Pince, Ercag; Kocabas, Coşkun; Pince, Ercag; Kocabas, CoşkunExtremely high field effect mobility together with the high surface coverage makes graphene a promising material for high frequency electronics application. We investigate the intrinsic high frequency performance limit of graphene field effect transistors limited by the charge impurity scattering. The output and transfer characteristics of graphene field effect transistors together with the high frequency performance are characterized as a function of impurity concentration and dielectric constant of the gate insulator. Our results reveal that graphene transistors could provide power gain at radio frequency band. Item Open AccessLocalization of surface plasmon polaritons in hexagonal arrays of Moiré cavities(AIP Publishing, 2011-01) Balcı, Sinan; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, Atilla; Balcı, Sinan; Kocabaş, Aşkın; Kocabaş, Coşkun; Aydınlı, AtillaIn view of the progress on the confinement of light, we report on the dispersion characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on two-dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements show omnidirectional confinement of SPPs. The resonance wavelength of SPP cavity modes can be adjusted by tuning the propagation direction of SPPs. The results may have an impact on the control of spontaneous emission and absorption with applications in light emitting diodes and solar cells, as well as in quantum electrodynamics experiments.