Browsing Department of International Relations by Title
Now showing 1 - 20 of 571
Results Per Page
Item Open Access9/11 was an instance of transnational balancing: An intervention in statist IR theory(SAGE, 2022) Aydinli, Ersel; Aydinli, ErselWith the end of the Cold War and through the start of the 21st century, conventional IR theories were anticipating an eventual balancing against the United States. Puzzled when this phenomenon did not occur, balancing theorists engaged in a lively discussion, bringing with it the development of proposed alternative forms of balancing and a debate over whether the concept itself had perhaps outlived its relevance. This article reengages with this discussion, suggesting that many of the involved theorists were hampered by theoretical blinders based on statism, and that in fact balancing did occur, but in an unconventional manner and at the hands of an unexpected suspect: al Qaeda, a violent non state actor, acting in a transnational manner. In this context, this article treats the 9/11 attacks of the violent Jihadist anti-Western movement as an instance of balancing against the hegemon, a successful one in that the Jihadists arguably aimed not at “winning,” but at revealing the superpower’s weaknesses so that others would subsequently join the balancing effort. By failing to view the Jihadists’ efforts as an ideological balancing effort, the United States responded with force rather than ideational counter-balancing. They waged a war instead of emphasizing efforts to separate the radical violent Jihadist perpetrators from the idea they were championing—a struggle in the name of Muslims/the downtrodden East against the United States—and thus allowing the challenger to rise into a position of "dissident" in the Muslim world, and, arguably, paving the path for today’s state revisionist behaviors. The article proposes a framework based on traditionally state-based concepts of intent and impact/capacity to show how non-state actors can in fact balance superpowers and therefore should be incorporated into balancing theories, and presents the actions of the violent Jihadists as an example of transnational, ideational balancing—a phenomenon as real and consequential as state-balancing. Item Open Access Item Open AccessAcceptance and anxiety: Turkey (mostly) embraces Obama's nuclear posture(Routledge, 2011-03) Kibaroglu, M.US nuclear weapons have been an important part of Turkey's security strategy since their first deployment on Turkish soil in the early 1960s. Turkey's NATO membership and its close relationship with the United States have been perceived to be integral to maintaining its security. The release of the 2010 US Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), with its focus on disarmament and reduced reliance on nuclear weapons, has a number of potential consequences for Turkey. This article provides background on the history of Turkish-US nuclear weapons policy in light of issues ranging from Middle Eastern politics to the development of NATO's new Strategic Concept. It then describes how actors in the government, military, and academia in Turkey have reacted to the NPR, why they reacted as they did, and how the Obama administration's initiatives may be received in Turkey in the future. This article concludes that both military and civilian actors in Turkey have reacted favorably to the NPR and are pleased by its emphasis on nuclear nonproliferation and the maintenance of extended deterrence; however, there is less agreement in Turkey about the emphasis placed by the NPR on the danger of nuclear terrorism. Item Open AccessThe activities of the "Union for the Liberation of Ukraine" in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War(Routledge, 1998) Kırımlı, H. Item Open AccessAdaptive states and the new transnational security regime(Routledge, 2010) Aydınlı, Ersel; Aydınlı, Ersel Item Open AccessAddressing Kurdish separatism in Turkey(Palgrave Macmillan, 1999) Müftüler-Baç, Meltem; Ross, M. H.; Rothman, J.One of the ongoing themes in descriptions of ethnic conflicts and their settlement is that there is a role for a wide range of interveners. The reason for this may be simple: that there is a great deal which needs to occur before hostile groups can find ways to live together in relativepeace. A well-developed theory of ethnic conflict resolution would not only take into account the roles that different actors can play in the process, but would also offer insights into the particular roles each might play at different stages of a conflict. Item Open AccessThe Aegean disputes(Foreign Policy Institute, 2004) İnan, Yüksel; Acer, Y.; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali L.; Taşhan, S.The present study aims at evaluating, in their present situation, the Aegean disputes by reflecting particularly the Turkish views of the issues in an objective manner without a particular effort to judge who is right and who is wrong. The review excludes the disputes over the air traffic service (ATS) and the related ones to that and also over the military conducts within NATO, due to both space limitations and the need to focus on the other issues that draw the attention of the public. Item Open AccessAegean territorial waters conflict: an evolutionary narrative(Sage Publications Ltd., 2004) Güner, S. Ş.Delimitation of the territorial waters and continental shelf in the Aegean Sea constitutes a constant source of conflict and produces recurrent crises between Greece and Turkey. This article explores directions that the Greek-Turkish dispute over the delimitation of territorial waters can take through an evolutionary game framework. Crises are found to follow routines and practices involving challenges to the status quo and reactions preceding mutual retreat. Hence, the status quo in the Aegean Sea can persist even in the form of aggressive behavior. It is also possible that the dispute will evolve into a stable state of conflict where no cooperative foreign policy can survive. Item Open AccessAfter Khomeini: The Iranian Second Republic /Author: Ehteshami, Anoushiravan. London: Routledge, 1995. 221 pages+Bibliography+index. ISBN 0-415-10878-0(Uluslararası Stratejik Araştırmalar Kurumu, 2007) Bilgen, Arda; Bilgen, ArdaIranian Revolution was one of the most significant events ever witnessed. The revolution changed the regime of a big country and affected the region as it affected the whole world. The regional and global impact of Ayatollah Khomeini was so intense that the Islamic movements in Iran made particular regional countries and Western countries worry. The future of the alternating Iran was vague, it became vaguer after the death of Khomeini; everyone wondered how a leader could replace his charismatic leadership. The events after Khomeini, such as changes in foreign and regional policy of Iran, change in economy, security and defense strategy of the Second Republic should be examined carefully in order to understand the maneuvers Iran makes today. Hence, to be informed of this considerable event and able to interpret the stages Iran passed to reach the current status, revolution, Khomeini and post-Khomeini events and figures have to be learnt. After Khomeini: The Iranian Second Republic is the right book to read to inform. Item Open AccessAid‐supported governance reforms in Solomon Islands: Piecemeal progress or persistent stalemate?(Wiley, 2020-05) Şahin, Selver B.; Shahin, Evgeniia; Şahin, Selver B.; Shahin, EvgeniiaMotivation:Despite seeming donor–recipient consensus on the importance of effective governance, aid‐linked reforms often fall short of the expected outcomes. Solomon Islands provides a highly relevant case to explore the dynamics of institutional reform processes, and understand why, even in a relatively favourable operating environment, structural reforms are difficult to implement. Purpose:This article aims to provide empirically grounded analysis of key factors that hinder institutional change in fragile aid‐receiving countries by addressing the reciprocal (rather than unilateral) constraints and trade‐offs faced by both recipients and donors, and examining their implications for the emerging institutional trajectories in host states. Approach and Methods:This study is based on the use of a single case study that involves in‐depth review of related academic and policy literature, and media reports through the lens of “mutual dependencies.” Findings: Solomon Islands’ recent experience with the regulation of Constituency Development Funds and tertiary scholarships makes it clear that by continuously postponing the implementation of relevant policies, domestic authorities try to avoid the potential costs institutional reforms are likely to create. Similarly, donors concerned about their own strategic interests and power relationships with other actors remain unable to enforce full implementation of such reforms. The process in Solomon Islands further confirms that political trade‐offs facing all actors in different forms have a constraining effect on the achievement of desired policy objectives. Policy Implications: Policy reforms require domestic authorities to develop specific mechanisms that have the potential to secure popular support in favour of proposed structural changes. Donors need new and more evidence‐based approaches that may help balance between their strategic concerns and the achievement of institutional outcomes. Item Open AccessAn alternative account of the populist backlash in the United States: a perspective from Turkey(Cambridge University Press, 2019) Esen, Berk; Yardımcı-Geyikçi, Ş.; Esen, BerkScholars tend to assume that consolidated democracies are free from the global retreat of democracy due to their strong institutions and economic development. Yet, populist forces that challenge the liberal democratic model have started to increase their support even in Western countries. However, in no country has democratic backsliding taken scholars by more surprise than in the United States. This article addresses the question of how a populist figure like Donald Trump managed to win the presidential election and subsequently undermined the democratic institutions in one of the world’s oldest democracies. We contend that the upsurge of populist leaders in contemporary Western democracies resulted from the political establishment’s failure to juggle responsiveness and responsibility simultaneously. In addition to our discussion of American politics, we draw parallels with the Turkish case to demonstrate our causal argument and offer suggestions on how to reverse democratic backsliding in the United States. Item Open AccessAlternative futures for the European Union-Turkey accession negotiations(Metropolitni Univerzita Praha, 2013) Güner, S. Ş.This work proposes a simple two-period interaction model to study EU-Turkey accession negotiations. Turkey perceives the EU as composed of two distinct groups with respect to its accession: traditional supporters and objectors. Supporters opt for either cooperation or defection in period one while objectors consistently oppose Turkish accession. Turkey reacts to cooperation and defection in the second period under its perceptions of EU support. Future uncertainties concerning Turkey's accession do not prevent supporters' cooperation provided that Turkey becomes successful in economics, political reforms, and foreign policy. Turkey continues to negotiate not because it appreciates supporters' cooperation but because no supporter defects. Supporters become concerned about the future interacting with a failing Turkey. Unlike impatient supporters that are less concerned about the future, patient supporters oppose a failing Turkey's accession. Turkey then extremely appreciates supporters' cooperation but quits accession process that becomes highly costly. Item Open AccessAlternative futures for the Middle East(Pergamon Press, 2001) Bilgin, P.This paper investigates alternative futures of security in the Middle East in an attempt to discover a path that could take the region from an insecure past to a more secure future. Looking at five scenarios about the future of world politics, namely, globalisation, fragmentation, clash of civilisations, democratic peace and the formation of a security community, the paper argues that although each scenario has its strengths (as well as weaknesses), it is the scenario that foresees the establishment of a security community that incorporates a more explicit consideration for shaping a more secure future for the Middle East. Item Open AccessAnalysing macro-poverty linkages of external liberalisation: gaps, achievements and alternatives(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005) Gunter, B. G.; Taylor, L.; Yeldan, E.CGE modelling has dominated analysis of the impact of external liberalisation on poverty. This article provides a structuralist critique of standard neo-classical CGE models. It highlights five sets of gaps and partial achievements in the modelling of issues affecting the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies: duality and structural rigidities; efficiency gains and quota rents; the investment and savings specification; the nature of public expenditures; and the modelling of financial fragility, risk premia and issues of credibility. It outlines a model that makes it possible to analyse more plausible stories about the impact of both current and capital account liberalisation and questions the realism of existing approaches to ex-ante poverty impact assessment. © Overseas Development Institute, 2005. Item Open AccessAn analysis of integrative outcomes in the Dayton peace negotiations(Emerald Publishing Limited, 2000) Beriker-Atiyas, N.; Demirel-Pegg, T.The nature of the negotiated outcomes of the eight issues of the Dayton Peace Agreement was studied in terms of their integrative and distributive aspects. In cases where integrative elements were found, further analysis was conducted by concentrating on Pruitt's five types of integrative solutions: expanding the pie, cost cutting, non-specific compensation, logrolling, and bridging. The results showed that real world international negotiations can arrive at integrative agreements even when they involve redistribution of resources (in this case the redistribution of former Yugoslavia). Another conclusion was that an agreement can consist of several distributive outcomes and several integrative outcomes produced by different kinds of mechanisms. Similarly, in single issues more than one mechanism can be used simultaneously. Some distributive bargaining was needed in order to determine how much compensation was required Finally, each integrative formula had some distributive aspects as well. Item Open AccessAnarchy meets globalization: a new security dilemma for the modernizing state(State University of New York Press, 2005) Aydınlı, Ersel; Rosenau, J. N.; Aydınlı, Ersel Item Open Access“... And the entire mass of loyal people leapt up ”. The attitude of Nicholas II towards the pogroms(Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (E H E S S), 2004) Podbolotov, S.The article examines the attitude of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II towards one of the most tragic events which happened during his reign, the pogroms. The story, as the author argues, is important to understand the worldview, the political portrait of the last tsar and the pogrom phenomenon in late imperial Russia. The author supports his arguments with the archival and newly published documents or recent scholarship. The tsar's letters, remarks concerning the pogroms, and particularly his policy towards those responsible and towards pogromists are in the centre of the analyses. The major wave of pogroms that swept through Russia after the publication of the October 1905 Manifesto is considered within the context of a Russian bunt, a general anarchy of those days. The article analyses the social make-up of pogromists who emerged from wide illiterate lower social strata. The pogroms demonstrated that the autocracy of Nicholas II had some popular support in the struggle with revolution, even if of an extremely dubious character. Nicholas II, like an old-fashioned admirer of the idea of unity between tsar and people, straightforwardly explained pogroms as a rise of his most loyal subjects against the alien revolutionary plotters which had, however, as he admitted, horrible consequences. Convinced that the violence had to be prevented and not tolerated, Nicholas II at that critical time was in a way pleased that his imagined Rus' where all simple "true-Russians" were ready to defend the tsarist autocracy, as it seemed to him, came true.