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Item Open AccessNaval security in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean: a Turkish view(Routledge, 1993) Karaosmanoglu, A. L. Item Open AccessDie neue regionale Rolle der Türkei(Oberursel/Taunus, 1993) Karaosmanoğlu, A. L.Die Türkei gehort zu den Landem, die vom Ende des Kalten Krieges und den damit einhergehenden geopolitischen Veranderungen in Eurasien am starksten betroffen sind. Sie befindet sich an zentraler Position in einem bunten intemationalen Umfeld, das sich von der Adria bis zum Westen Chinas erstreckt. Die meisten der in dieser Region lebenden Volker sind ethnisch mit der Tiirkei verbunden und zahlen Millionen von Menschen. Dies neue Umfeld hat der tilrkischen AuBenpolitik neue Perspektiven gegeben. Die vormalige Politik des ,,niedrigen Profits", gekennzeichnet durch Nichteinmischung in regionale Konflikte, ist unter den neuen Bedingungen zunehmend irrelevant geworden. Die Erwartungen regionaler Staaten an die Tiirkei einerseits und die neu eroffneten Moglichkeiten andererseits haben Ankara dazu veranla8t, eine aktive Rolle auf dem Balkan, in der Schwarzmeer-Region, im Kaukasus, in Zentralasien und im Nahen Osten zu iibemehmen. Item Open AccessThe 'Young Tatar' movement in the Crimea: 1905-1909(EHESS, 1993) Kırımlı, H.During the 1905 revolution, a nationalist-revolutionary movement emerged among the Crimean Tatar intelligentsia, whose members were called the "Young Tatars." Strongly influenced by the Russian revolutionaries, the Young Tatars engaged in a political and social struggle involving a network of underground cells, as well as legal publications and enlightenment activities. They introduced the political concept of "fatherland," defined by the Crimea, thereby providing a territorial basis for national identity. While endorsing broader Turkic and Islamic allegiances, they concentrated primarily on the Crimean Tatar people as the starting point of their national identity. Item Open AccessImplications for Turkey's relations with Western Europe(Institute for Security Studies, 1994) Sezer, Duygu B.; Jopp, M. Item Open AccessThe nature of PKK terrorism in Turkey(Taylor & Francis, 1995) Criss, Nur BilgeThis study is undertaken to evaluate the profile of the PKK (Kurdish Workers Party) and Kurdish political behavior separately in an attempt to distinguish the Kurdish issue from terrorism. PKK's profile has changed between 1978, when it was founded and now, depending on Turkey's internal politics as well as the changing international environment. Basically, it started out as a Marxist‐Leninist separatist organization, but by 1990 switched to demanding a federation of Kurds and Turks, and simultaneously bidding for a role in an independent Kurdestan comprising southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq. PKK's only consistent policy is to have remained a Marxist‐Leninist organization so far. The first part of this article addresses the roots, objectives, and methods of the PKK. The second part assesses the problem within Turkey's domestic environment, with a focus on whether PKK truly represents Turkey's Kurds. The third section tries to answer the question of who provides the logistical and financial support for PKK, thereby exploring the issue's international dimensions. The last section evaluates prospects regarding a “political solution” to the problems of the southeast, which is now being voiced in both Turkey and Western capitals. Item Open AccessInternational Institutions and European Security: a Turkish perspective(Palgrave Macmillan, 1995) Criss, Nur Bilge; Carnovale, M.The world order is increasingly being reshaped along the lines of the classical system of balance of power and concomitant spheres of influence. While the merits of this are debatable, it is indisputable that no clear modus vivendi has been established in international relations. During the euphoria connected with the collapse of communist systems, expectations ran high. Some even welcomed ‘the end of history’: liberalism had triumphed. But subsequent events indicated that liberalism had only begun to penetrate societies where it had previously been repressed. Meanwhile, history has reasserted itself with a vengeance, and the question of how to manage international security remains open. Item Open AccessTurkey’s new security environment, nuclear weapons and proliferation(Taylor & Francis Inc., 1995) Sezer, Duygu BazogluTurkey has been touched deeply by the geostrategic changes introduced into the international system by the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. This article will present and analyze Turkish perceptions of its evolving security environment in the post‐cold war era as it impacts Turkish interests and policies, with particular reference to the implications for Turkish security of the existing nuclear weapons and potential proliferation in regions and countries that are located near its borders . The article will describe and analyze the impact of the dissolution of the Soviet Union on Turkish security perceptions and policies. It will review developments and trends in the Balkans and in the Middle East/Persian Gulf region as they impinge on Turkish security. Turkish attitudes toward nuclear energy, the nuclear option, and proliferation will also be discussed. Item Open AccessBalance of power in the Black Sea in post cold war era: Russia, Turkey and Ukraine(Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1995) Sezer, Duygu Bazoğlu; Drohobycky, M. Item Open AccessSurplus creation and extraction under structural adjustment: Turkey, 1980-1992(Sage Publications, Inc., 1995) Yeldan, A. E.Based on the classical notion that resolution of the distributional conflict preceded accumulation and production, the paper addresses the changing patterns of surplus creation and extraction under Turkish structural adjustment of the 1980s. Four overlapping mechanisms of surplus extraction that span the adjustment period are identified, and the position of capital toward wage-labor, peasantry, the foreign economy and the state is discussed. Item Open AccessView from Turkey: Turkey's new security environment, nuclear weapons and proliferation(Taylor & Francis, 1995) Sezer, D. B.Turkey has been touched deeply by the geostrategic changes introduced into the international system by the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. This article will present and analyze Turkish perceptions of its evolving security environment in the post-cold war era as it impacts Turkish interests and policies, with particular reference to the implications for Turkish security of the existing nuclear weapons and potential proliferation in regions and countries that are located near its borders [l]. The article will describe and analyze the impact of the dissolution of the Soviet Union on Turkish security perceptions and policies. It will review developments and trends in the Balkans and in the Middle East/Persian Gulf region as they impinge on Turkish security. Turkish attitudes toward nuclear energy, the nuclear option, and proliferation will also be discussed. Item Open AccessMediating regional conflicts and negotiating flexibility: peace efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovina(Sage, 1995-11) Atiyas, N. B.This study analyzes four mediation initiatives in the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to understand the differences between mediators' capabilities and their effect on the negotiating flexibility of the disputing parties. It is claimed that regardless of the outcomes of the negotiations, in all mediation cases, parties adopted flexible negotiating behavior in the form of making or offering con- cessions, agreements on rules and procedures, agreements on mutual solutions, and introducing new peace proposals. In all instances, the mediators played both the facilitator and manipulator roles. The difference between a mediation process leading to an agreement and one ending with a stalemate is found in the way and extent to which a mediator uses his or her leverage in playing the role of a manipulator. Item Open AccessTurkish security in the shifting Balkans: reorientation to a regional focus(Eastern European Monographs, 1996) Bazoğlu-Sezer, Duygu; Tsipis, K. Item Open AccessRussia and the South: Central Asia and the Southern Caucasus(Routledge, 1996) Sezer, D. B. Item Open AccessYoung Turk assessments of international politics, 1906–9(Taylor & Francis, 1996) Ünal, H. Item Open AccessImplementing an object-oriented deductive database using temporal reasoning(IGI Global, 1996) Kesim, N.; Sergot, M.A general approach for temporal reasoning, the event calculus, has been modified and applied to the development of a historical deductive object base. The event calculus is a theory of time in first-order logic augmented with negation as failure. It is shown how an object-based variant of the event calculus may be used for representing changes to the states of objects. We first present the formulation and describe the maintenance of a historical object-oriented database by the use of events. The resulting formalization can be executed as a logic program. We then discuss the implementation of a practical database system based on the theory we develop. The additional detail needed to develop a system of realistic scale is outlined. The aim is to present the object-based event calculus as a unifying framework for the implementation of a deductive and object-oriented database system. Item Open AccessMuslim-Turkish children in Germany: sociocultural problems(Center for Migration Studies, 1996) Onder, Z.The integration of Muslim-Turkish children into the German school environment and more importantly, into the larger context of German society, is fraught with difficulties. A host of sociocultural problems hinders their acceptance into the German culture, chief of which is the conflict that comes with being torn between two cultures. Prejudices that lead to their isolation also contribute to their failure to gain acceptance. These cause personal and social identity problems among the children, torn as they are between the Islamic value-norm system and the German environment. Item Open AccessSimulating the Lausanne Peace negotiations 1922-1923: power asymmetries in bargaining(Sage, 1996) Beriker, N.; Druckman, D.The negotiation leading to the historic Lausanne Peace Treaty provides a setting for exploring the impacts of different power configurations on bargaining behavior. Symmetric and asymmetric coalition structures existed on two key issues in the talks, passage through the straits and the question of civil rights for minorities. A content analysis of the transcripts showed some differences in bargaining behavior between the two power structures. These structures were simulated and compared to a third condition, bilateral negotiations between parties of equal power Opposing negotiators in the symmetric parties condition were more satisfied with the outcome, achieved faster resolutions, disagreed less, and made fewer competitive statements during the discussions than negotiators from these countries in the coalition conditions. Both similarities and differences were found in the comparison between the processes and outcomes in the actual and simulated negotiations. The results have implications for designing structures that improve negotiations and illustrate some advantages of experimental simulation. © 1996 Sage Publications, Inc.