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Item Open AccessTask allocation onto a hypercube by recursive mincut bipartitioning(Elsevier, 1990) Ercal, F.; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, P.An efficient recursive task allocation scheme, based on the Kernighan-Lin mincut bisection heuristic, is proposed for the effective mapping of tasks of a parallel program onto a hypercube parallel computer. It is evaluated by comparison with an adaptive, scaled simulated annealing method. The recursive allocation scheme is shown to be effective on a number of large test task graphs-its solution quality is nearly as good as that produced by simulated annealing, and its computation time is several orders of magnitude less Item Open AccessStandard conformance test specification language TTCN(Elsevier, 1992) Sarikaya, B.; Wiles, A.The International Standards Organization (ISO) has defined a protocol test language called TTCN (Tree and Tabular Combined Notation) to specify abstract test suites for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocols. TTCN combines a tree notation for dynamic behaviour description with a tabular representation of various language constructs. TTCN allows tabular constraints to enforce values on the Abstract Service Primitive (ASP) or Protocol Data Unit (PDU) parameters. For application layer protocols, Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) constraints are used. Dynamic behaviour description in TTCN is shown to address many important aspects of conformance testing such as modularity support in terms of test cases, steps and default behaviour tables and sophisticated timer management. TTCN has a machine processable form called TTCN-MP that defines all the TTCN syntax using BNF. Semantics of the tests specified in TTCN is operationally defined rendering TTCN almost a formal notation. © 1992. Item Open AccessAn animation system for rigid and deformable models(1993) Güdükbay, Uğur; Özgüç, B.; Tokad, Y.; Güdükbay, UğurWe describe a system for the animation of rigid and deformable models. The system uses the approaches from elasticity theory for animating the models. Two different formulations, namely the primal and the hybrid formulations, are implemented so that the user could select the suitable one for an animation depending on the rigidity of the models. Collision of the models with impenetrable obstacles and constraining model points to fixed positions in space are implemented for use in the animations. Item Open AccessComputer aided frequency planning for the radio and TV broadcasts(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996-06) Altıntaş, Ayhan; Ocalı, O.; Topçu, Satılmış; Tanyer, S. G.; Köymen, Hayrettin; Altıntaş, Ayhan; Ocalı, O.; Topçu, Satılmış; Köymen, HayrettinThe frequency planning of the VHF and UHF broadcasts in Turkey is described. This planning is done with the aid of computer databases and digital terrain map. The frequency offset is applied whenever applicable to increase the channel capacity. The offset assignment is done through simulated annealing algorithm. The international rules and regulations concerning Turkey are also considered. Item Open AccessRegional technical efficiency in the Turkish agriculture: a note(University of Delhi * Delhi School of Economics, 1998) Demir, N.; Mahmud, S.A panel data, (67 provinces and the years 1993-1995) of the Turkish agriculture, was employed to estimate technical efficiencies for six agricultural regions and 67 provinces using maximum likelihood techniques (ML). Stochastic frontier based on Cobb-Douglas production function with agricultural value added as the endogenous variable and land, labour and capital as the exogenous variables was estimated. Index of capital stocks was obtained by principal component technique. The results show that differences in technical efficiencies by regions and provinces are significant. Furthermore, it has been shown that some of these differences can be explained by location specific factors such as amount of precipitation, market accessibility and population density. Item Open AccessElectronic excited states of the CP29 antenna complex of green plants: a model based on exciton calculations(Springer / Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000) İşerı, E. İ.; Albayrak, D.; Gülen, D.We have suggested a model for the electronic excited states of the minor plant antenna, CP29, by incorporating a considerable part of the current information offered by structure determination, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectroscopy in the modeling. We have assumed that the electronic excited states of the complex have been decided by the chlorophyll-chlorophyll (Chl) and Chl-protein interactions and have modeled the Coulombic interaction between a pair of Chls in the point-dipole approximation and the Chl-protein interactions are treated as empirical fit parameters. We have suggested the Qy dipole moment orientations and the site energies for all the chlorophylls in the complex through a simultaneous simulation of the absorption and linear dichroism spectra. The assignments proposed have been discussed to yield a satisfactory reproduction of all prominent features of the absorption, linear and circular dichroism spectra as well as the key spectral and temporal characteristics of the energy transfer processes among the chlorophylls. The orientations and the spectral assignments obtained by relatively simple exciton calculations have been necessary to provide a good point of departure for more detailed treatments of structure-function relationship in CP29. Moreover, it has been discussed that the CP29 model suggested can guide the studies for a better understanding of the structure-function relationship in the major plant antenna, LHCII. Item Open AccessImpact of centralised istructional supervision on teachers: a case study of a private secondary school in Turkey(University of Malta * Faculty of Education, 2000) Collins, A. B.Examined implementation of centralized instructional supervision at a private Turkish secondary school, exploring administrators', department heads', and teachers' perceptions of this system's impact on all aspects of education. Results show that the system has deficiencies due to its judgmental, subjective nature and lack of adequate inspectors. It is considered an administrative assessment and does not provide formative support to teachers. Item Open AccessDo intentions and perceptions always meet? a case study regarding the use of a teacher appraisal scheme in an English language teaching environment(Elsevier, 2000-02-23) Vanci-Osam, U.; Aksit, T.This article reports research examining a group of English language teachers' perceptions of the teacher appraisal scheme with a developmental purpose. Speci"cally, the researchers tried to "nd out if there is a discrepancy between what the institution intended to achieve and how teachers perceived the scheme before and after their participation in it. The "ndings of the study, which were obtained by analysing the data collected from the teachers and appraisers in the form of two structured interviews revealed some signi"cant clues for the institutions which are involved in or interested in running teacher appraisal schemes in their workplace. Item Open AccessLimits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries(Pergamon Press, 2000-12) Tosun, C.This study deals with a normative concept of participatory development approach, which originates in the developed world. In particular, it analyses and explains the limitations to the participatory tourism development approach in the context of developing countries. It was found that there are operational, structural and cultural limits to community participation in the TDP in many developing countries although they do not equally exist in every tourist destination. Moreover, while these limits tend to exhibit higher intensity and greater persistence in the developing world than in the developed world, they appear to be a reflection of prevailing socio-political, economic and cultural structure in many developing countries. On the other hand, it was also found that although these limitations may vary over time according to types, scale and levels of tourism development, the market served, and cultural attributes of local communities, forms and scale of tourism developed are beyond the control of local communities. It concludes that formulating and implementing the participatory tourism development approach requires a total change in socio-political, legal, administrative and economic structure of many developing countries, for which hard political choices and logical decisions based on cumbersome social, economic and environmental trade-offs are sine qua non alongside deliberate help, collaboration and co-operation of major international donor agencies, NGOs, international tour operators and multinational companies. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Item Open AccessPay-back; can students evaluate their instructors: dilemmas and problems.(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001) Collins, A. B. Item Open AccessGateway to the real world, industrial training: dilemmas and problems(Pergamon Press, 2001-02) Collins, A. B.In today's competitive society, students are faced with a selective job market which places premium on experience. Hands-on experience cannot be imparted through lectures. It can only be gained through direct activity, either laboratory or real world confrontation. Laboratory learning is clinical, whereas, real-world confrontation, known as industrial training or internship, affords students a first hand glimpse of reality. There is no substitution for the "sting of battle". This paper examines stakeholders' reactions to the university level "industrial training" program and its success in providing a realistic workplace experience. The study examined the structure of the "industrial training system" (ITS), its strengths and weaknesses, and what can be done to improve the system. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Item Open AccessÜniversite öğrencileri öğretim elemanlarının başarısını değerlendirebilir mi? ikilemler ve problemler(Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, 2002) Collins-Baş, Ayşe; Collins-Baş, AyşeÖğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarını değerlendirmesi (ÖÖED) üniversite düzeyinde bir eğitim kurumunun başarısının değerlendirilmesi alanında en yaygın ve etkin yöntemlerden birisidir (Seldin, 1984). ÖÖED yöntemi öğretim elemanlarının etkinliği konusunda öncelikli bir bilgi kaynağıdır ve bu bilgi eğitim kurumları tarafından hem “biçimlendirici” (formative-öğretim elemanının kendi performansını geliştirmesi) hem de “düzey belirleyici” (summative-öğretim elemanlarının bulundukları konumu korumaları, terfileri ve kıdemleri için) olarak kullanılabilir. Eğer bir üniversite sistemi profesyonel anlamda büyüyecek ise, ne değerlendirmeden kaçabilir ne de toplumun, kullanılan öğretim yöntem ve tekniklerini yargılamadan kabullenmesini bekleyebilir. İnsan öğesi söz konusu olunca belirsizlik kaçınılmazdır. Bu bağlamda kullanılan yöntemin aşamalı olarak gözden geçirilmesi “güvenilirlik” ve “geçerlilik” sağlar (Centra, 1993). Birkaç yöntemin bir arada kullanılması ve bu yöntemlerden birinin ÖÖED olması daha sağlıklıdır. Bu araştırmanın amacı ÖÖED sistemini üniversite ortamında öğrencilerin ve öğretim elemanlarının bakış açılarından incelemektir. Araştırmada hem “nicel” hem de “nitel” araştırma yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, her ne kadar şu anda kullanılan ÖÖED sisteminin güçlü ve zayıf yanları olduğunu gösterse de, yeterli “ön bilgilendirme” ve “yönlendirme” ile sistemin üniversite, öğretim elemanları ve öğrenciler için daha “yapıcı” ve “etkin” hale gelebilecegini göstermektedir. Item Open AccessSchool-based supervision at a private Turkish school: a model for improving teacher evaluation(Taylor & Francis Inc., 2002) Collins, A. B.All aspects of work, and even play, require an allusive entity called supervision. Supervision models vary from loosely organized structures to strict activity overview. The `instructional supervisory role' may be performed by one or several individuals from within or without the school, all working to assist school personnel improve their performance (for example, employees from the National Inspection System). As in other countries, Turkey has private and state schools. Both are subject to regular inspection by a centralized National Inspection System. However, in order to overcome shortfalls of the National Inspection System, private schools have had to establish internal teacher evaluation programs. The purpose of this paper is to assess current school-based supervision practices in one private school. It is intended to provide a school-based supervision model through which private secondary schools may improve their performance, accountability, and enhance teacher quality. Item Open AccessAgro-climatic conditions and regional technical inefficiencies in agriculture(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2002) Demir, N.; Mahmud, S. F.A survey of applications of the Technical Inefficiency Effects (TIE) model suggests that agro-climatic and other environment variables are customarily omitted in the model specifications. The justification for such an omission is the assumption that these variables are beyond the control of the farmers and therefore should be treated as random variables. In this paper, we argue that in applications dealing with regional agricultural data, agro-climatic variables should not be treated as pure random terms. Historical differences in agro-climatic conditions are known with a reasonable degree of certainty across a larger region. Therefore, omission of such variables from the analysis may lead to inaccurate interregional technical inefficiency comparisons. In order to demonstrate the importance of agro-climatic variables in such analyses, we estimate the TIE model for Turkey. A translog stochastic frontier production function with agro-climatic variables such as rainfall and land quality is estimated, and it is shown not only that the agro-climatic variables are statistically significant but also that their omission substantially affects mean output elasticities and relative technical efficiencies. Item Open AccessDoes a school make a difference? perceptions of an ‘effective school’(Sage Publications Ltd., 2002) Collins, A. B.This article examines perceptions of an effective school considering relevant literature, teachers’, administrators’ and students’ judgments. It discusses effectiveness as it applies to private school systems operating in Turkey. It gives abridged aspects of the current Turkish Education System: state; and private. This perception, Eastern European, Quasi-Mediterranean, draws commonalities with Western systems lying groundwork for comparisons of universal problems faced by educators. The study employed qualitative case study methods and procedures. Data were collected through interview schedules, document analysis and observation notes. Results show that the subjects perceive ‘effective school’ qualities as being school leadership, school culture/climate and quality human resources. Commonality can be found between the situation presented here and other developing school systems. Item Open AccessFocusing on evaluation of teacher development? a model for school-based supervision(Türk Eğitim Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi, 2002) Baş-Collins, Ayşe; Baş-Collins, Ayşell aspects of work, and even play, require an allusive entity called supervision. Supervision models vary from loosely organized structures, to strict activity overview. The 'instructional supervisory role" may be one or several individuals, working to assist school personnel to perform better. They may be from outside the school (ie. national inspection system) or the principal or department head or senior instructor. As in other countries, Turkey has private and state schools. Both are subject to regular inspection by a centralised National Inspection System. However, in order to overcome shortfalls of the National Inspection System, private schools have established their own teacher evaluation programs. This paper assesses current private school-based supervision practices. It is intended to provide a school-based supervision model, through which private secondary schools may improve their performance and accountability while enhancing teacher quality. Item Open AccessLetting go of control to the learners: the role of the Internet in promoting a more autonomous view of learning in an academic translation course(Routledge, 2002) Yumuk, A.This study investigates how an Internet information search based programme in an academic course can encourage learners who have a traditional view of learning to take more responsibility for their own learning. The study took place with 90 third-year English-speaking translation students whose native language is Turkish in a course specializing in written translation of nancial and economic terms at a university in Turkey. The study aimed to design and evaluate a pro- gramme to promote a change in students’ attitudes from a traditional, recitation- based view of learning to a more autonomous view of learning. The programme was implemented to encourage students to use the Internet in order to select, analyse, evaluate and apply relevant information to enhance the accuracy of their translations.The search and application of the Internet-based information aimed to encourage students to think and re ect critically on their learning, so that they could question their teacher-dependent learning habits. The evaluation of the programme was carried out with reference to pre- and post-course question- naires, post-course interviews and information recorded weekly in a diary by the teacher as researcher. The results indicate that the programme had a signi cant impact on students, in that it promoted a change in the view of learning towards more autonomy. After applying Internet-based information searches to their written translation tasks, the majority of the students accepted that the translation process required more personal responsibility from the learner, and furthermore, they viewed learning more meaningfully. Item Open AccessAre we teaching what we should? dilemmas and problems in tourism and hotel management education(Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2002) Collins, A. B.There is a growing demand for professionally educated and trained staff in the Tourism and Hotel Management (THM) sector as the whole industry attempts to meet expanded consumer wants and desires. This article examines the relevance of THM education from stakeholders' perspectives, namely, the THM sector, the current and graduate THM students. The following research questions were posed: 1) What are the sector representatives' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of tourism education? 2) What are the current and graduate students' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of tourism education? and 3) What recommendations can be made to improve the system? Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in the study. Results showed that there was an expanding need for university recognition of specialization due to new technologies and consumer maturation. Likewise, the need for an improved mix between the academic and practical experience and second language inadequacies were highlighted by joint concerns expressed by the sector representatives and the graduate students.