Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors
We proposed and demonstrated metamaterial-based strain sensors that are highly sensitive to mechanical deformation. Their resonance frequency shift is correlated with the surface strain of our test material and the strain data are reported telemetrically. These metamaterial sensors are better than traditional radio-frequency (rf) structures in sensing for providing resonances with high quality factors and large transmission dips. Using split ring resonators (SRRs), we achieve lower resonance frequencies per unit area compared to other rf structures, allowing for bioimplant sensing in soft tissue (e.g., fracture healing). In 5×5 SRR architecture, our wireless sensors yield high sensitivity (109 kHz/kgf, or 5.148 kHz/microstrain) with low nonlinearity error (<200 microstrain).