Open system peridynamics
We propose, for the first time, a thermodynamically consistent formulation for open system (continuum-kinematics-inspired) peridynamics. In contrast to closed system mechanics, in open system mechanics mass can no longer be considered a conservative property. In this contribution, we enhance the balance of mass by a (nonlocal) mass source. To elaborate a thermodynamically consistent formulation, the balances of momentum, energy and entropy need to be reconsidered as they are influenced by the additional mass source. Due to the nonlocal continuum formulation, we distinguish between local and nonlocal balance equations. We obtain the dissipation inequality via a Legendre transformation and derive the structure and constraints of the constitutive expressions based on the Coleman–Noll procedure. For the sake of demonstration, we present an example for a nonlocal mass source that can model the complex process of bone remodelling in peridynamics. In addition, we provide a numerical example to highlight the influence of nonlocality on the material density evolution. © 2022, The Author(s).