High-efficiency and low-loss gallium nitride dielectric metasurfaces for nanophotonics at visible wavelengths
The dielectric nanophotonics research community is currently exploring transparent material platforms (e.g., TiO2, Si3N4, and GaP) to realize compact high efficiency optical devices at visible wavelengths. Efficient visible-light operation is key to integrating atomic quantum systems for future quantum computing. Gallium nitride (GaN), a III-V semiconductor which is highly transparent at visible wavelengths, is a promising material choice for active, nonlinear, and quantum nanophotonic applications. Here, we present the design and experimental realization of high efficiency beam deflecting and polarization beam splitting metasurfaces consisting of GaN nanostructures etched on the GaN epitaxial substrate itself. We demonstrate a polarization insensitive beam deflecting metasurface with 64% and 90% absolute and relative efficiencies. Further, a polarization beam splitter with an extinction ratio of 8.6/1 (6.2/1) and a transmission of 73% (67%) for p-polarization (s-polarization) is implemented to demonstrate the broad functionality that can be realized on this platform. The metasurfaces in our work exhibit a broadband response in the blue wavelength range of 430-470 nm. This nanophotonic platform of GaN shows the way to off- and on-chip nonlinear and quantum photonic devices working efficiently at blue emission wavelengths common to many atomic quantum emitters such as Ca+ and Sr+ ions.