Xenogenic neural stem cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles modulate human mesenchymal stem cell fate and reconstruct metabolomic structure
Extracellular nanovesicles, particularly exosomes, can deliver their diverse bioactive biomolecular content, including miRNAs, proteins, and lipids, thus providing a context for investigating the capability of exosomes to induce stem cells toward lineage-specific cells and tissue regeneration. In this study, it is demonstrated that rat subventricular zone neural stem cell-derived exosomes (rSVZ-NSCExo) can control neural-lineage specification of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Microarray analysis shows that the miRNA content of rSVZ-NSCExo is a faithful representation of rSVZ tissue. Through immunocytochemistry, gene expression, and multi-omics analyses, the capability to use rSVZ-NSCExo to induce hMSCs into a neuroglial or neural stem cell phenotype and genotype in a temporal and dose-dependent manner via multiple signaling pathways is demonstrated. The current study presents a new and innovative strategy to modulate hMSCs fate by harnessing the molecular content of exosomes, thus suggesting future opportunities for rSVZ-NSCExo in nerve tissue regeneration.