The role of ligand rebinding and facilitated dissociation on the characterization of dissociation rates by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and benchmarking performance metrics
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a real-time kinetic measurement principle that can probe the kinetic interactions between ligands and their binding sites, and lies at the backbone of pharmaceutical, biosensing, and biomolecular research. The extraction of dissociation rates from SPR-response signals often relies on several commonly adopted assumptions, one of which is the exponential decay of the dissociation part of the response signal. However, certain conditions, such as high density of binding sites or high concentration fluctuations near the surface as compared to the bulk, can lead to non-exponential decays via ligand rebinding or facilitated dissociation. Consequently, fitting the data with an exponential function can underestimate or overestimate the measured dissociation rates. Here, we describe a set of alternative fit functions that can take such effects into consideration along with plasmonic sensor design principles with key performance metrics, thereby suggesting methods for error-free high-precision extraction of the dissociation rates.