Department of Architecture

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 80
  • ItemOpen Access
    Robert G. Ousterhout (16 Ocak 1950- 23 Nisan 2023)
    (İstanbul Üniversitesi, 2023-06-21) Çağaptay, Suna; Henry, Ayşe Belgin
    Yakınlarınca bilinen adıyla Bob Ousterhout, 1950 yılında ABD’de Oregon’un Pendleton kasabasında Hollanda’dan göçmüş çok çocuklu bir ailenin ortanca çocuğu olarak doğdu. 1973 yılında Oregon Üniversitesi, Sanat Tarihi Bölümü’nde lisans derecesini tamamladı. Lisans derecesini tamamlarken 1970-1972 yılları arasında değişim programıyla Avusturya Viyana’daki Institute of European Studies’te bulundu. 1977 yılında Ohio’daki Cincinnati Üniversitesinde Sanat Tarihi programında yüksek lisans derecesini tamamladı. 1982 yılında, Slobodan Ćurčić danışmanlığında yazdığı ve Kariye Camii’ni incelediği ve yeniden yorumladığı teziyle doktora ünvanını aldı.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The acoustical characterization of clay pots in Ottoman architecture through experimental and numerical analysis
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2023-02-01) Atay, Gülnihan; Sü Gül, Zühre; Önen, O.
    In medieval age, clay pots are utilized as multi-functional building elements serving not only for structural and ventilative purposes but also for the improvement of the acoustic qualities of the space. Although the medieval usage of acoustic pots is vaguely connected with the acoustic vessels of Vitruvius, their employment is also interpreted as cavity resonators as in the case of Süleymaniye Mosque. The 16th century edifice designed by Sinan the Architect Laureate is a significant example among its European counterparts with 224 clay pots embedded into its central dome. The present work aims to discuss the contribution of clay pots in acoustics of historical edifices focusing on Süleymaniye Mosque. In this study, a clay pot sample employed in the mosque is reproduced and impedance tube measurements are held. The results are then compared with finite element model simulations carried out to examine the effective frequency range of the clay pots. Finally, the data acquired from numerical simulations and the experimental measurements are applied in ray tracing simulations. The final results reinforce the contribution of clay pots on the improvement of sound energy decay rate measured after the final restorations within the mosque with repaired pots.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cognitive Comparison of design methods in the conceptual phase
    (Sage Publications Ltd., 2023-07-12) Gürel, Adel; Şenyapılı Ozcan, Burcu
    The initial phases of design, known as the conceptual design phases, are often associated with hand sketching, while parametric tools are reserved for the later, more developed stages of design. This paper examines the potentials of using parametric tools in the early design phases in comparison to widely utilized hand sketching. It is intended to find out the impacts of using parametric tools on the cognitive behaviors and the satisfaction of self-assessment levels of the designers. An experimental study was conducted with a group of graduate architecture students using Grasshopper, the findings of which are analyzed through a content-oriented coding scheme, together with protocol analyses. Significant differences are found between cognitive behaviors of the participants in using hand sketching and Grasshopper. The findings show that all of the participants consider Grasshopper as a useful conceptual design tool that may be utilized in early design phases, in contrast to its wide popularity in the late stages of design.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Acoustical footprint of the traditional turkish baths in historic settings
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2023-04-20) Bora Özyurt, Z.; Sü Gül, Zühre
    The Turkish bath structure (hamam) is one of the key typologies in Anatolian architecture. In addition to its main “bathing” function, Turkish baths are chosen as the main venue for social organizations in the Ottoman period, with eating and dancing accompanied by live music. Thus, the construction of baths, in various sizes, was prioritized then and still holds its place in the social and cultural life of Anatolia. This study investigates the authentic acoustical characteristics of Turkish baths, over four selected baths in Bursa, Turkey; Karamustafa (15th c.), Yeni Kaplıca (16th c.), Kaynarca (17th c.), and Tahirağa (19th c.). Room impulse responses are collected through acoustical field measurements. Acoustical simulations are utilized to experiment with the materials, which reflect the historical origins, as well as used to test the effects of different humidity levels on acoustical parameters. The objective parameter analysis includes EDT, T20, T30, C80, D50, and STI assessments. Relationships between objective parameters and geometrical attributes are investigated. Lower T30 and higher STI values are obtained with historical plaster in comparison to the up-to-date conditions. Controlled analysis in decreasing the relative humidity resulted in lower T20 and T30 values, consequently higher STI values. Obtained data are discussed considering the usage of male and female baths, traditional activities as well as the nature of the sound sources.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Robert G. Ousterhout (January 16, 1950- April 23, 2023)
    (Istanbul University Press, 2023) Çağaptay, Suna; Henry, Ayşe Belgin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Striving for wellbeing digitally in the city amidst the pandemic: solidarity through Twitter in Ankara
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2023-05-25) Sak, Segah; Yavuzyiğit, Bilge Begüm
    This article elaborates on the utilization of social media for practices of interaction in the city during the COVID 19 pandemic and discusses its potential in providing for the wellbeing of urban communities. During the early periods of the pandemic when preventative measures were taken intensively to decrease contamination, com munities lacked physical relationships with and within cities. Interactions realized in physical spaces in normal conditions were compensated with practices in social media. While such shift can be perceived to have decreased the meaning of cities in the pursuit of daily life and interactions, efforts which were localized upon physical human settlements yet were realized in the digital realm seem to have opened alternative paths for connection among residents. Within this context, we explore Twitter data through three hashtags which were promoted by the local government of Ankara and used densely by the residents in the early periods of the pandemic. Considering that social connection is one of the fundamental enablers of wellbeing, we aim to provide insights into the strive for wellbeing in times of crises where ruptures in physical interaction prevail. The patterns we observe in the expressions that gather around the selected hashtags shed a light on the ways the cities, their people and local governments are positioned in the struggles pursued in digital realm. Our findings support our arguments that social media has significant potential in contributing to the wellbeing of people especially in times of crisis, local governments can increase the quality of life of their citizens with modest actions, and the cities hold significant meanings for people as loci of communities and thus of wellbeing. Through the discussions we pursue, we seek to contribute to the stimulation of research, policies, and community actions that aim at the enhancement of wellbeing of urban individuals and communities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Fluid futures of multi-layered histories: many lives of north brother island, New York City
    (Universidad de Oviedo, 2023-07-29) Erdoğan, Meriç
    The transience of populations reflects itself as the life cycle of the buildings. Constantly changing dynamics in the entities of a building also constantly effects the fate of the structure. Even with the proper treatment, the loss of its compatibility in functions with the deterioration of a structure becomes inevitable with the forces of various humanitarian, natural and ecological crises. The examined case that has experienced several phases of ephemerality in its lifetime is the North Brother Island in NYC that people abandoned more than half a century ago. In its many lives, the island has been a quarantine island, the site of one of the deadliest maritime accidents, a last resort housing solution for WWI veterans, and a forced rehabilitation center for young drug addicts. Today the island is occupied with a few abandoned public buildings, which are remnants of its troublesome past, and innumerable plants that have taken over the land after everyone left. And now it is facing its proclaimed sinking that is going to be happening in 100 years. This project is for the treatment of a more than human community in the isolated jungle off the coast of the dense cosmopolitan NYC. In an era defined by the environmental and climatic crises, architecture's long-standing obsession with monumental and immortal buildings has to leave a way for a humbler approach intending to provide habitats for more than one entity in the cycle of life. The design method to answer this problem is to consciously re-creating places on the island by using de-constructed materials from the former buildings of the island with the addition of biodegradable ones. By their dissolving in nature after the sinking, only the skeletons of the structure will remain as a ruin, but also as a new home for underwater life. In conclusion, this approach envisions a safe environment for nature and humans through the different stages of the island until the inevitable yet not to be feared sinking of the island, which will further become the starting point of the new urban infrastructure of underwater life.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Bourgeois wealth, architecture, and urbanization: The Azaryan family in Late Ottoman Istanbul
    (Istanbul Research Institute, 2023-11-08) Günhan Çalışkan, Aslıhan
    Istanbul’s urbanization in the late nineteenth century was highly influenced by private investors and land commodification practices. This article focuses on one of these investors, the Azaryan family, and particularly Bedros and Josef Azaryan, and explores how they participated in the capitalistic urbanization of Istanbul. Through an examination of their investments in Ayazpaşa (Gümüşsuyu) and in Büyükdere, the article unveils different complexities of urban modernization, land commodification, and building construction. Focusing on the Azaryan waterside mansion (yalı) in Büyükdere and the Azaryan Palas in Ayazpaşa, this article positions the Azaryan family as influential actors capable not only of representing their wealth through architecture but also of negotiating with the state to resolve construction disputes. It therefore sheds light on themes such as patronage, finance, visual power, land tenure, and architectural labor. Working through an array of sources such as tendering documents, embassy correspondences, private notebooks, maps, and survey drawings, the article portrays the polyvocal and fragmented dynamics of capitalistic urbanization in late Ottoman Istanbul.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Desert dreams and techno-utopian nightmares: The complex history of California city and the colonial gaze towards the desert
    (Taylor & Francis Inc., 2023-10-10) İşbilen, Ezgi
    Despite being some of the harshest environments to design for and inhabit, deserts are considered some of the most malleable in our imagination. Countless military bases, proving grounds, gunneries, and practice fields that simulate other locales prove that in military imagination, deserts are nondescript proxy spaces waiting to be filled with the character of whatever location they are to imitate. The developers’ imagination is not far behind. Through a historical case study of California City, an ambitiously planned but only partially built desert development project, and unpacking of the terms “desert” and “wasteland,” this essay examines the colonial gaze towards the desert that often shapes our perceptions of this unique environment and exposes the fallacies in our thinking that lead us to imagine deserts as a blank slate waiting to be transformed. The paper also highlights the dangers of overconfidence in technology to create techno-utopias and the need to acknowledge the reality of the desert’s harsh environment in any planning or development.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Data and discourse: an assessment of Taksim urban design competition in terms of populism and participation
    (Routledge, 2023-03-08) Acar, Yiğit ; Demet, Gönülnur; Kaynar, Melek
    This research presents perspectives on urban design competitions from both professionals and the general public by utilizing two sets of data: a review of professional discussions and social media commentaries on the competition. The international urban design competition for Taksim Square, held during the global pandemic lockdowns, generated a substantial record of the process, offering a rare opportunity to revisit existing literature and gain new insights into urban design competitions. The findings are evaluated through the framework of participation and populism.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficiency of sound energy decay analysis in auditoria
    (Institute of Acoustics, 2023-09) Xiang, N.; Gül, Zühre Sü
    Recent auditorium acoustics practice has included coupled-volume systems in several performing arts venues. This has stimulated research activities on acoustics in the coupled-volume systems. Based on experimentally measured room impulse responses acquired from existing auditoria, and several historically significant worship spaces, this paper addresses the challenges of analysing single-slope and multiple-slope sound energy decays often encountered in the experimentally measured room impulse responses in these venues. The analysis engages a parametric model of Schroeder decay functions, that decomposes the Schroeder decay data into single or multiple exponential decays along with a noise term. The model has been well validated using many experimental data. Several advanced analysis methods based on the decay model, such as nonlinear regressions, Bayesian probabilistic inference, and artificial neural networks have emerged to cope with analysis challenges raised in auditorium acoustics practice. This paper discusses conditions of implementing Schroeder integration for a higher efficiency of the numerical analysis and clarifies some unreasonable expectations/interpretations of Schroeder decay data. © 2023 Institute of Acoustics. All rights reserved.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Investigation of a tuff stone church in Cappadocia via acoustical reconstruction
    (MDPI, 2022-05-16) Adeeb, Ali Haider; Gül, Zühre Sü
    This study investigates the indoor acoustical characteristics of a Middle Byzantine masonry church in Cappadocia. The Bell Church is in partial ruins; therefore, archival data and the church’s remains are used for its acoustical reconstruction. The study aims to formulate a methodology for a realistic simulation of the church by testing the applicability of different approaches, including field and laboratory tests. By conducting qualitative and quantitative material tests, different tuff stone samples are examined from the region. Impedance tube tests are performed on the samples from Göreme and Ürgüp to document their sound absorption performances. Previous field tests on two sites in Cappadocia are also used to compare the sound absorption performance of tuff stones, supported by acoustical simulations. The texture, physical and chemical characteristics of the stones together with the measured sound absorption coefficient values are comparatively evaluated for selecting the most suitable material to be applied in the Bell Church simulations. The church was constructed in phases and underwent architectural modifications and additions over time. The indoor acoustical environment of the church is analyzed over objective acoustical parameters of EDT, T30, C50, C80, D50, and STI for its different phases with different architectural features and functional patterns. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Market regeneration in line with sustainable urban development
    (MDPI, 2022-09-17) Borucka, Justyna; Czyż, Piotr; Gasco, Giorgio; Mazurkiewicz, Weronika; Nałęcz, Dorota; Szczepański, Marcin
    This article presents the study of the optimal design solutions for regeneration of marketplaces. It examines the design variants for the revitalisation of the marketplace, in particular, investment in their modernisation in order to find the most optimal model for transforming these public spaces to have a significant impact on the city’s development. The research is a comparative analysis of the implementation of regeneration design models on the marketplace within the Oliwa district of Gdansk (Poland).The data for the case study design models includes analysis based on various optimisation criteria, taking into account the urban and economic aspects of the city landscape when selecting a specific space revitalisation design model. The implementation of regeneration investment includes a number of complex processes that must be sustainable and so require rational social and spatial planning, as well as proper organisation in terms of cost and time.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Scattering delay network simulator of coupled volume acoustics
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-18) Atalay, Timuçin Berk; Gül, Zühre Su; De Sena, Enzo; Cvetkovic, Zoran; Hachabiboğlu, Hüseyin
    Artificial reverberators provide a computationally viable alternative to full-scale room acoustics simulation methods for deployment in interactive, immersive systems. Scattering delay network (SDN) is an artificial reverberator that allows direct parametric control over the geometry of a simulated cuboid enclosure, as well as the directional characteristics of the simulated sound sources and microphones. This paper extends the concept of SDN reverberators to multiple enclosures coupled via an aperture. The extension allows independent control of the acoustical properties of the coupled enclosures and the size of the connecting aperture. Transfer functions of the coupled-volume SDN are derived. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of rendered energy decay curves in comparison to full-scale ray-tracing models and scale model measurements. © 2014 IEEE.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Acoustics for architects: A potpourri of undergraduate and graduate level teaching styles, tools and in-course projects
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2022-04-01) Sü Gül, Zühre; Çalışkan, Mehmet
    Acoustics is one of the basic environmental comfort factors both in indoor and outdoor spaces. Students of architecture need to confront this theoretical field at some phase of their education. The main focus of this study is to provide a discussion platform of tools and teaching styles in architectural acoustics education of future architects, by depicting approaches that can motivate students and provide them a long-lasting understanding of the phenomena. Accordingly, a long-term experience in acoustics classes with undergraduate and graduate level students, mainly from departments of architecture of two prominent Turkish universities, is exemplified. Course contents of architectural acoustics programs are described, different models and methods of teaching are discussed, and last, selected projects, specifically those having an academic output, are presented. The study also aims to highlight some techniques and approaches that can be employed in acoustics education with limited technological tools, simply by active inclusion of the design background and creative thinking of the architecture students in this applied research area.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Social housing as paradoxical space: Migrant women’s spatial tactics inside Toki Uzundere Blocks
    (Routledge, 2022-06-22) Gürel, Meltem; Eranil, M.
    This study focuses on migrant women’s experiences in TOKI Uzundere, a housing settlement built in Izmir (2009) by the Mass Housing Administration of Turkey (TOKI). It problematizes the incompatibility between the apartments’ standardized layouts and the residents’ spatial practices. The study argues that these interiors have become paradoxical spaces with the potential to be transformed by women struggling to fit them to their daily routines, and social and physical needs, by applying certain spatial tactics. These tactics were charted through in-depth interviews with women, observations inside their apartments, schematic drawings, and photography. Our analysis demonstrates how women’s everyday practices and spatial tactics challenge and reconfigure the assumed uses of the interiors in these social housing units.
  • ItemOpen Access
    From excavation to vitrine: The afterlife of late Hellenistic bovine terracottas from Niğde Kınık Höyük
    (University of Chicago Press, 2022-03) Casagrande-Kim, R.; Erduran, Deniz Üçer; Frank, E. B.; Güngör, İ.
    In this article the authors present the preliminary results of the study, conservation, and display of a corpus of Hellenistic terracottas from Niğde Kınık Höyük consisting of bovine figures ranging from small protomes to medium-sized bull statues, and to close-to-life-size hoofs and chests. Images of Greek divinities attached to the bulls’ necks suggest that the corpus was pertinent to a cultic tradition related to the Olympic pantheon. The ongoing work combines data collected through excavation, scientific analysis, conservation, and museum practices to understand this unique body of material and effectively present it to academic and museum audiences.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effects of stage house coupling on multipurpose auditorium acoustics
    (Elsevier, 2022-09) Gül, Zühre Sü; Eşmebaşı, M.; Bora Özyurt, Z.
    The current scientific research on coupled spaces has augmented the design applications of reverberation chambers and stage house-coupling in music venues in the last couple of decades, and vice-versa the halls that incorporate room acoustics coupling has attracted attention of researchers in the field. Most of the cases, depict the room acoustics coupling from a positive perspective, as the non-exponential energy decay aids clarity and reverberance, which are two simultaneous requirements to satisfy in a music hall. However, not many studies discuss the negative effects of a potential non-exponential energy decay in an auditorium, or a multi-function hall, if not intentionally and carefully utilized. This study aims to highlight the importance of stage tower design in an auditorium, which is aimed to be used dominantly for speech-oriented activities and occasionally to host recitals. The paper initially introduces the acoustical design phases of the auditorium that is within the Ted Ankara Foundation College Performance Art Center. Acoustical simulations are utilized during design phase. The selected auditorium has multiple construction phases, including pre and post acoustical treatment within the stage. Accordingly, field tests are held before and after stage tower acoustical interventions. Collected impulse responses are analyzed by Bayesian decay parameter estimations, in both stages of construction. The discomfort caused by the surplus sound energy within the stage tower, specifically the excessive late coming low frequency sound energy -boomy sound-, are validated by the double-slope sound energy decay within the hall. The desired acoustical comfort could only be provided when the multi-slope sound energy decays are overcome by sound absorptive treatment applications in stage tower and its auxiliary side and back spaces.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The concept of beauty in art
    (Elsevier, 2022-01-01) Turan, Fulya; Vargel, İ.; Özgür, F. F.
    Before the invention of the camera, it was only possible to document beauty through art. For centuries, art and beauty were inseparable. Different meanings were attributed to the “beautiful” in history. Sometimes noble simplicity and calm sublimity were accepted as beauty; sometimes moral beauty was at the forefront. Among the beauties, a special place and importance was given to female beauty in the history of art. The untouched, desired, hopelessly loved woman of the Middle Ages later became the main subject of a painting genre. Nudes, which were first made for religious reasons such as to depict a specific scene from the bible, later diversified under the subject of Venus. The female body has become the object of sensual consumption. In addition to female beauty, the beauty of nature has always been among the subjects of art. Art imitated nature for a while because it was beautiful. It was the background to which man was exposed during his natural evolution. The proportions of nature were good for people, they were found beautiful. Nature, which was previously handled only with a style based on imitation, was handled with an abstract expression in time, thanks to the avant-garde artists of the 20th century. It was a period in which different styles of expression were tried. Modernism, where wisdom, beauty, and refinement were sought, was for an elite audience who idealized nature. It left its place to postmodernism in which sensual stimulation was sought rather than an intellectual admiration, which is for mass media and where craftsmanship is idealized. The individual of the 21st century consumer society, who is passionately attracted to the beauty of their own image that is presented to the gaze of others on social media, resembles the nobles of the Renaissance period, when the charm of the wealth obtained through overseas trade was depicted with a similar passion.