Item Open AccessInvestigation of a tuff stone church in Cappadocia via acoustical reconstruction(MDPI, 2022-05-16) Adeeb, Ali Haider; Gül, Zühre Sü; Adeeb, Ali Haider; Gül, Zühre SüThis study investigates the indoor acoustical characteristics of a Middle Byzantine masonry church in Cappadocia. The Bell Church is in partial ruins; therefore, archival data and the church’s remains are used for its acoustical reconstruction. The study aims to formulate a methodology for a realistic simulation of the church by testing the applicability of different approaches, including field and laboratory tests. By conducting qualitative and quantitative material tests, different tuff stone samples are examined from the region. Impedance tube tests are performed on the samples from Göreme and Ürgüp to document their sound absorption performances. Previous field tests on two sites in Cappadocia are also used to compare the sound absorption performance of tuff stones, supported by acoustical simulations. The texture, physical and chemical characteristics of the stones together with the measured sound absorption coefficient values are comparatively evaluated for selecting the most suitable material to be applied in the Bell Church simulations. The church was constructed in phases and underwent architectural modifications and additions over time. The indoor acoustical environment of the church is analyzed over objective acoustical parameters of EDT, T30, C50, C80, D50, and STI for its different phases with different architectural features and functional patterns. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Item Open AccessMarket regeneration in line with sustainable urban development(MDPI, 2022-09-17) Borucka, Justyna; Czyż, Piotr; Gasco, Giorgio; Mazurkiewicz, Weronika; Nałęcz, Dorota; Szczepański, Marcin; Gasco, VThis article presents the study of the optimal design solutions for regeneration of marketplaces. It examines the design variants for the revitalisation of the marketplace, in particular, investment in their modernisation in order to find the most optimal model for transforming these public spaces to have a significant impact on the city’s development. The research is a comparative analysis of the implementation of regeneration design models on the marketplace within the Oliwa district of Gdansk (Poland).The data for the case study design models includes analysis based on various optimisation criteria, taking into account the urban and economic aspects of the city landscape when selecting a specific space revitalisation design model. The implementation of regeneration investment includes a number of complex processes that must be sustainable and so require rational social and spatial planning, as well as proper organisation in terms of cost and time. Item Open AccessScattering delay network simulator of coupled volume acoustics(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-18) Atalay, Timuçin Berk; Gül, Zühre Su; De Sena, Enzo; Cvetkovic, Zoran; Hachabiboğlu, Hüseyin; Gül, Zühre SuArtificial reverberators provide a computationally viable alternative to full-scale room acoustics simulation methods for deployment in interactive, immersive systems. Scattering delay network (SDN) is an artificial reverberator that allows direct parametric control over the geometry of a simulated cuboid enclosure, as well as the directional characteristics of the simulated sound sources and microphones. This paper extends the concept of SDN reverberators to multiple enclosures coupled via an aperture. The extension allows independent control of the acoustical properties of the coupled enclosures and the size of the connecting aperture. Transfer functions of the coupled-volume SDN are derived. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of rendered energy decay curves in comparison to full-scale ray-tracing models and scale model measurements. © 2014 IEEE. Item Open AccessAcoustics for architects: A potpourri of undergraduate and graduate level teaching styles, tools and in-course projects(Acoustical Society of America, 2022-04-01) Sü Gül, Zühre; Çalışkan, Mehmet; Sü Gül, ZühreAcoustics is one of the basic environmental comfort factors both in indoor and outdoor spaces. Students of architecture need to confront this theoretical field at some phase of their education. The main focus of this study is to provide a discussion platform of tools and teaching styles in architectural acoustics education of future architects, by depicting approaches that can motivate students and provide them a long-lasting understanding of the phenomena. Accordingly, a long-term experience in acoustics classes with undergraduate and graduate level students, mainly from departments of architecture of two prominent Turkish universities, is exemplified. Course contents of architectural acoustics programs are described, different models and methods of teaching are discussed, and last, selected projects, specifically those having an academic output, are presented. The study also aims to highlight some techniques and approaches that can be employed in acoustics education with limited technological tools, simply by active inclusion of the design background and creative thinking of the architecture students in this applied research area. Item Open AccessSocial housing as paradoxical space: Migrant women’s spatial tactics inside Toki Uzundere Blocks(Routledge, 2022-06-22) Gürel, Meltem; Eranil, M.; Gürel, MeltemThis study focuses on migrant women’s experiences in TOKI Uzundere, a housing settlement built in Izmir (2009) by the Mass Housing Administration of Turkey (TOKI). It problematizes the incompatibility between the apartments’ standardized layouts and the residents’ spatial practices. The study argues that these interiors have become paradoxical spaces with the potential to be transformed by women struggling to fit them to their daily routines, and social and physical needs, by applying certain spatial tactics. These tactics were charted through in-depth interviews with women, observations inside their apartments, schematic drawings, and photography. Our analysis demonstrates how women’s everyday practices and spatial tactics challenge and reconfigure the assumed uses of the interiors in these social housing units. Item Open AccessFrom excavation to vitrine: The afterlife of late Hellenistic bovine terracottas from Niğde Kınık Höyük(University of Chicago Press, 2022-03) Casagrande-Kim, R.; Erduran, Deniz Üçer; Frank, E. B.; Güngör, İ.; Erduran, Deniz ÜçerIn this article the authors present the preliminary results of the study, conservation, and display of a corpus of Hellenistic terracottas from Niğde Kınık Höyük consisting of bovine figures ranging from small protomes to medium-sized bull statues, and to close-to-life-size hoofs and chests. Images of Greek divinities attached to the bulls’ necks suggest that the corpus was pertinent to a cultic tradition related to the Olympic pantheon. The ongoing work combines data collected through excavation, scientific analysis, conservation, and museum practices to understand this unique body of material and effectively present it to academic and museum audiences. Item Open AccessThe effects of stage house coupling on multipurpose auditorium acoustics(Elsevier, 2022-09) Gül, Zühre Sü; Eşmebaşı, M.; Bora Özyurt, Z.; Gül, Zühre SüThe current scientific research on coupled spaces has augmented the design applications of reverberation chambers and stage house-coupling in music venues in the last couple of decades, and vice-versa the halls that incorporate room acoustics coupling has attracted attention of researchers in the field. Most of the cases, depict the room acoustics coupling from a positive perspective, as the non-exponential energy decay aids clarity and reverberance, which are two simultaneous requirements to satisfy in a music hall. However, not many studies discuss the negative effects of a potential non-exponential energy decay in an auditorium, or a multi-function hall, if not intentionally and carefully utilized. This study aims to highlight the importance of stage tower design in an auditorium, which is aimed to be used dominantly for speech-oriented activities and occasionally to host recitals. The paper initially introduces the acoustical design phases of the auditorium that is within the Ted Ankara Foundation College Performance Art Center. Acoustical simulations are utilized during design phase. The selected auditorium has multiple construction phases, including pre and post acoustical treatment within the stage. Accordingly, field tests are held before and after stage tower acoustical interventions. Collected impulse responses are analyzed by Bayesian decay parameter estimations, in both stages of construction. The discomfort caused by the surplus sound energy within the stage tower, specifically the excessive late coming low frequency sound energy -boomy sound-, are validated by the double-slope sound energy decay within the hall. The desired acoustical comfort could only be provided when the multi-slope sound energy decays are overcome by sound absorptive treatment applications in stage tower and its auxiliary side and back spaces. Item Open AccessThe concept of beauty in art(Elsevier, 2022-01-01) Turan, Fulya; Turan, Fulya; Vargel, İ.; Özgür, F. F.Before the invention of the camera, it was only possible to document beauty through art. For centuries, art and beauty were inseparable. Different meanings were attributed to the “beautiful” in history. Sometimes noble simplicity and calm sublimity were accepted as beauty; sometimes moral beauty was at the forefront. Among the beauties, a special place and importance was given to female beauty in the history of art. The untouched, desired, hopelessly loved woman of the Middle Ages later became the main subject of a painting genre. Nudes, which were first made for religious reasons such as to depict a specific scene from the bible, later diversified under the subject of Venus. The female body has become the object of sensual consumption. In addition to female beauty, the beauty of nature has always been among the subjects of art. Art imitated nature for a while because it was beautiful. It was the background to which man was exposed during his natural evolution. The proportions of nature were good for people, they were found beautiful. Nature, which was previously handled only with a style based on imitation, was handled with an abstract expression in time, thanks to the avant-garde artists of the 20th century. It was a period in which different styles of expression were tried. Modernism, where wisdom, beauty, and refinement were sought, was for an elite audience who idealized nature. It left its place to postmodernism in which sensual stimulation was sought rather than an intellectual admiration, which is for mass media and where craftsmanship is idealized. The individual of the 21st century consumer society, who is passionately attracted to the beauty of their own image that is presented to the gaze of others on social media, resembles the nobles of the Renaissance period, when the charm of the wealth obtained through overseas trade was depicted with a similar passion. Item Open AccessChallenges and more challenges: The Taiwan–Reyhanlı centre for world citizens (2016 - )(2021) CHIU, CHEN-YU; CHIU, CHEN-YU Item Open AccessCharacterizing the indoor acoustical climate of the religious and secular rock-cut structures of Cappadocia(Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-23) Adeeb, Ali Haider; Sü-Gül, Zühre; Henry, Ayşe Belgin; Adeeb, Ali Haider; Sü-Gül, Zühre; Henry, Ayşe BelginRock-cut structures of Cappadocia, which are enlisted as natural and cultural World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, have particular acoustics due to the specific tuff stone belonging to the region. This study, for the first time, discusses the indoor sound fields of the Cappadocia over five selected spots (one church and four residential halls) from Middle Byzantine sites of Hallaç, Açıksaray and Avanos with an aim of providing evidence regarding the spatial features and culture of the people inhabited these spaces. Acoustical data is collected during in-situ field tests. Acoustic parameters (EDT, T20, T30, C80, CD50, and STI) are obtained for the spaces under study. The rock-cut church is found to be the most reverberant among all the spaces and the most suitable for liturgical practices. The other four spaces are observed as comparatively more favorable for speech-related activities. The study also compares the sound absorption performance of Cappadocian tuff stone to those present in other natural caves and rock-cut structures investigated throughout the world in few prominent studies Item Open AccessParametric urban design thinking: shared patterns in design by algorithm and design by drawing(Sage Publications, 2021-12) Calıskan, O.; Barut, Yavuz Baver; Ongun, G.; Barut, Yavuz BaverThe paper suggests a focused examination of the processes of drafting-based design and parametric design in urbanism. It discusses how spatial design’s settled cognition would differ by using algorithmic systems through the altered relationships between the basic operations in design. To reveal the commonalities and distinctions between the two design methods, the authors present the detailed documentation of the workshop series, which experimented with both techniques within similar design contexts. By the design analysis, the idea of “parametric thinking” is revisited in the specific context of urban design. Item Open AccessDetailed investigation of glass balustrade in kashirskaya shopping mall project(Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers,Insaat Muhendisleri Odasi, 2020-05-23) Demirel, İsmail Ozan; Yakut, A.; Akyüz, U.; Yığın, H.; Dikbayır, E.; Demirel, İsmail OzanMoskova Rusya’da inşa edilen Kashirskaya alışveriş merkezinde, mimari gereksinimlerle, cam korkuluklar öngörülmüştür. İmalatçı tasarımında gereken birtakım değişiklikler sonucu en çok kullanılan ve gerçek ölçülerdeki büyük panellerin yapısal güvenliğinin deneylerle doğrulanması istenmiştir. Bu amaçla cam korkulukların ve bağlantı elemanlarının 3 boyutlu sonlu elemanlar modeli oluşturularak ilgili yönetmeliklere göre taşıma gücü ve deplasman hesapları yapılıp sonuçlar ODTU Yapı Mekaniği Laboratuvarı`nda tam ölçekli cam korkuluklar üzerinde gerçekleştirilen deneylerle doğrulanmıştır. Item Open AccessAnalysis of brick wall debris for reusing(Gazi Universitesi * Muhendislik Mimarlik Fakultesi,Gazi University * Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, 2021-03-21) Üçer Erduran, Deniz; Demirel, İsmail Ozan; Elias-Ozkan, S. T.; Üçer Erduran, Deniz; Demirel, İsmail OzanTuğla duvarlar sağlam ve uzun ömürlü olmalarına rağmen farklı sebeplerle yıkıma maruz kalırlar. Bu çalışma Ankara Çiğdem Mahallesinde 1990’larda inşa edilmiş tuğla duvar dolgulu betonarme bir kooperatif binasının yıkım sürecini sunmaktadır. Yıkım sonrası atık olarak sahada biriken yatay delikli tuğla duvar parçaları incelenmiş ve yeniden kullanıma uygun olabilecekleri gözlenmiştir. Tuğlalar, sıva ve harç numuneleri laboratuvarda basınç testine, duvar parçaları da başlangıç kayma dayanımı testine tabi tutulmuştur. Elde edilen mukavemet değerleri ve ölçülen diğer fiziksel özellikler ilgili standartlardaki değerlerden yüksek olduğu için kullanılmalarının uygun olduğu sonucuna varılmış ve uygun bir yeniden kullanım metodu sunulmuştur. Son olarak, bu metot temel alınarak yıkımda oluşan genel duvar atıklarının kurtarılması için nasıl düzenlemeler yapılabileceği tartışılmıştır. Item Open AccessBiomimetic metamaterial design simulation and evaluation for building acoustics by impedance measurements(A S T M International, 2021-09-01) Yazıcı, Beyza; Gül, Zühre Sü; Yazıcı, Beyza; Gül, Zühre SüThis study investigates the potentials of acoustic metamaterial (AMM) applications in room and building acoustics by means of impedance tube experiments. With their extreme properties in either sound absorption or transmission loss, AMMs can perform better than traditional acoustic materials in buildings. Importantly, they are also more sustainable and hygienic than fibrous and porous materials. Depending on the matrix material used, AMMs can vary in transparency and color. Considering both their acoustic and aesthetic values, this study develops different types of metamaterial for possible uses as a partition wall, a surface layer, or a design element. The proposed metamaterials are primarily based on the exploration of ratios and forms from nature—the golden ratio, web-labyrinthine structures, genetic and neural systems such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, and the synapse structures in the brain—reproduced on a subwavelength scale. These abstractions are then combined with the 3-D space coiling and 3-D labyrinth approaches of AMM design. Modules of the proposed AMMs are manufactured in a 3-D printer and tested in an impedance tube to estimate their normal incidence sound absorption coefficients and transmission loss characteristics. Based on the results obtained, the modules with the higher performances are used in the design of partition walls of varying heights. Two real-case architecture studios are simulated with and without the proposed AMM interventions over field test–tuned acoustical models of the studios to assess the effectiveness of such an approach in a possible acoustical design problem. Item Open AccessReuse of coffee and tea waste for acoustical panel applications in architectural design studios(Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2021-08-01) Sel, Ece; Düzova, İpek; Şireli, Anıl Ege; Yazıcı, Beyza; Gül, Zühre Sü; Sel, Ece; Düzova, İpek; Şireli, Anıl Ege; Yazıcı, Beyza; Gül, Zühre SüThis study has been initiated with the aim of enhancing acoustical comfort levels in architectural design studios. Initial assessment of the studios by field tests indicated very long reverberation times, supporting the complaints by the students and instructors. In order to be applied in a studio environment, acoustical panels are developed out of recycled materials. Increasing coffee demand and consumption of our era have motivated the reuse of coffee and tea waste. The end-product is composed of a panel of baked kiln-dried coffee grains and tea leaves. The coffee/tea residues are adhered together using natural binders. In order to determine the best possible alternative of the waste materials with the highest sound absorption performance, different variations are tested. Both impedance tube measurements and room acoustic simulations are utilized. Results indicate the potential improvement of the interior sound field of the studio environment by coffee-tea waste panel application. Considering the increasing demand for green technology, the layered panel system is proposing cost minimized, environmentally friendly and biodegradable solutions with improved acoustical and aesthetical values. Item Open AccessExploration of room acoustics coupling in Hagia Sophia of İstanbul for its different states(Acoustical Society of America, 2021-01-12) Gül, Zühre Sü; Gül, Zühre Süİstanbul’s Hagia Sophia is a monumental structure with multiple sub-spaces coupled to one another through arches. Its architectural elements have undergone alterations as its function has changed from that of a church to a mosque, a mosque to a museum, and back to a mosque. This study makes use of Hagia Sophia’s rich formal and material characteristics to conduct a comprehensive investigation of room acoustics coupling. The methodology involves the application of the diffusion equation model (DEM) for sound energy flow analysis. Energy flow decays and energy flow dips are examined for almost 1000 receiver positions distributed throughout the various sub-spaces of the building. Ray-tracing (Ray-t) simulations are used to support the energy flow decay analysis conducted using DEM. The Ray-t data are subjected to Bayesian analysis to identify the decay parameters and the degree of acoustical coupling. Among the many variables, the source-receiver distance and positioning within different sub-spaces appear to be the underlying determinant of multi-slope sound decay pattern. On the other hand, the cases of multi-slope decays identified within the structure tend to weaken and single-slope cases increase when the overall absorption area increases in the mosque state due to the carpeted floor. Item Open AccessHarmony of context and the built environment: soundscapes in museum environments via GT(Elsevier Ltd, 2021-02) Orhan, Cemre; Yılmazer, Semiha; Yılmazer, Semiha; Orhan, CemreThis paper presents an approach to analyze visitors' expectations and perceptions of museums' built and auditory environments. It aims to explore visitors' perception of acoustic and built environments in museums, generate a systematic categorization, and create a conceptual framework using the Grounded Theory (GT) approach. We measured the Equivalent Continuous A-weighted Sound Level (LAeq) and, following the ISO/TS 12913-2/3, conducted semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted to discover the sound environments and capture the subjective responses of visitors in two museums: the Rahmi M. Koç Museum (RMK) and the Erimtan Archaeology and Arts Museum (EAA) (both located in the most historical part of Ankara, Turkey). Although the selected museums offer two different experiences based on themes, exhibitions, and interior designs, we examined whether the museums’ soundscapes, connected contextually to the historical environment, could be perceived different from one another. Results show that Museum RMK, which has historical exhibitions and an historical building type, is more appealing to people's preferences and expectations than Museum EAA, which has historical exhibitions and a modern building type. The findings of the study reveal that peoples' perceptions are mostly dependent on the context in which sound is heard, rather than on sound levels in museums. In some areas, where sound was used as a design element, visitors had a better museum experience because they were able to interact with the exhibited objects on exhibit and feel as if they were living in a specific period. Item Open AccessComparative evaluation of ray tracing and diffusion equation modeling in room acoustics design of subway stations(Springer, 2020-02) Gül, Zühre Sü; Odabaş, E.; Çalışkan, M.; Gül, Zühre SüDue to their disproportionate geometries and uneven distribution of sound, the interior sound field analysis of subway stations has always been challenging. The field necessitates reliable tools for real-case design applications, while the research and discussions on the topic are still ongoing. This study compares two major room acoustics simulation approaches, namely ray tracing and diffusion equation modeling (DEM) in order to assist future acoustical designs of subway stations. Two cases of Istanbul Metropolitan metro lines are selected, namely station BAG with a circular cross section and station USK with rectangular cross section. The reverberation time and relative sound pressure level results from field tests are compared with those obtained by the ray tracing and DEM. The results emphasized the validity as well as limitations of each method over discussed metrics with given geometric layouts and material characteristics of the subway stations. Item Open AccessIdeas and ideals in Jørn Utzon’s courtyard houses: dwelling, nature, and Chinese architecture(Taylor and Francis, 2020) Chiu, Chen-Yu; Goad, P.; Myers, P.; Yılgın, Cem; Chiu, Chen-Yu; Yılgın, CemThe international recognition of Jørn Utzon’s professional career is accompanied by a growing interest in the Danish architect’s courtyard housing projects. But previous scholarship had access to limited material from Utzon’s professional career, compared to what is now available in The Utzon Archives. Based on a detailed study of presently accessible archival material and original interviews with Utzon’s family and affiliates, this article shows that the Danish architect’s courtyard housing projects closely reflected both his architectural philosophy in general and his thoughts on modern dwellings in particular. These were in turn cultivated by the ideas and ideals of Lin Yutang, Alvar Aalto, and Osvald Sirén. Item Open AccessIllustrations of the 1925-edition Yingzao fashi 營造法式: Jørn Utzon’s aesthetic confirmation and inspiration for the Sydney Opera House design (1958–1966)(Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-20) Chiu, Chen-Yu; Kılınçer, Nur Yıldız; Tabrizi, Helyaneh Aboutalebi; Chiu, Chen-Yu; Kılınçer, Nur Yıldız; Tabrizi, Helyaneh AboutalebiIn his 1958 study trip to China, Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918–2008) acquired two copies of the 1925-edition Yingzao fashi (Chinese Building Standards), first published in 1103 AD. Utzon’s own Yingzao fashi meticulously documented the imperial building practice in feudal China with numerous illustrations. The monograph later became one of the most important sources for Utzon to study the design, structure, construction and decoration of Chinese monuments during his enduring interest in Chinese building culture. However, the precise role of Utzon’s ideas and ideals inspired by the Yingzao fashi in the Opera House design still remains largely unexplored. By surveying the primary sources in The Utzon Archives, the State Library of New South Wales and the architectural collection of Utzon’s family, as well as interviewing his staff and colleagues, the authors argue the Yingzao fashi delivered an important impact both on the aesthetic ideal and architectonic characteristics of Utzon’s Opera House design. This presents that illustrations of Utzon’s Yingzao fashi served not only as a conceptual means to initiate his design but also as practical implements for him and his team to solve the problems of design, production and construction, before their forced resignation in 1966.