M.A. in Curriculum and Instruction - Master's degree

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  • ItemOpen Access
    International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme teachers’ practices and perceived self-efficacy regarding the development of Theory of Knowledge students’ critical thinking
    (Bilkent University, 2024-01) Gönen, İrem
    This present study investigated the Theory of Knowledge teachers’ perceptions regarding the definition of critical thinking, implementation of critical thinking, and their perceived self-efficacy. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 77 Turkish and international teachers. Following the interviews, selected respondents agreed to be interviewed to provide further insights into the analysis. Correlational design was used to examine the relation between participants’ perceived self-efficacy and a number of variables, including experience, subject area, and professional development. The results found significant relationships between the participants’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and their education level and International Baccalaureate professional development. Furthermore, the study provides insights into teaching methods and resources teachers often use to support students’ critical thinking during their Theory of Knowledge courses. In general, Theory of Knowledge teachers perceive critical thinking is integral to their course. Teachers’ self-efficacy regarding developing students’ critical thinking may be improved through targeted professional development courses.
  • ItemOpen Access
    English teachers’ perceptions of differentiated instruction in the Turkish context
    (Bilkent University, 2024-01) Özgüler, Sevgi
    In the contemporary landscape of education, the significance of Differentiated Instruction (DI) has become increasingly pronounced as educators encounter with the diverse and unique needs of students. As classrooms become more heterogeneous, DI has emerged as a pedagogical approach essential for fostering inclusive and effective learning environments. This study addresses an important research gap by conducting a qualitative exploration of Differentiated Instruction (DI) practices among K-12 English teachers in Türkiye. Acknowledging the scarcity of literature on this specific demographic, the study aims to uncover the perceptions of DI through in-depth interviews with 10 English teachers across diverse educational institutions. The qualitative approach employed in this study provides a comprehensive understanding of how English teachers perceive DI. Through a thematic analysis of the interview data, the researcher sought to not only capture the nuances of English teachers' perceptions and practices but also shed light on the unique challenges and opportunities within the Turkish educational context. The findings indicate that these English teachers are aware of DI and its benefits, and that they occasionally attempt to implement it in their classes but require support from other stakeholders to fully understand and implement it to achieve better results in the classroom. The study also offers insights into the cultural, institutional, and contextual factors influencing teachers' decisions, laying a foundation for future studies, and informing the development of targeted professional development programs tailored to the needs of K-12 English teachers in Türkiye.
  • ItemOpen Access
    International mindedness in a national context: analysis of an English coursebook published by Republic of Türkiye Ministry of National Education for Grade 9
    (Bilkent University, 2024-01) Gezer, Bilge Nur
    In an era of increasing interconnectedness of the global community, fostering international mindedness has become significant for individuals. Grounded in the principles of multilingualism, intercultural understanding, and global engagement; this study aims to find out the representations of international mindedness by analyzing the Grade 9 English coursebook published by Republic of Türkiye Ministry of National Education. Through a qualitative content analysis, this research emphasizes the role of coursebooks, which are widely used at high schools in Türkiye to maintain consistency in educational content. The findings highlighted a possible relation between international mindedness and Learner Centered ideology, contributing to the holistic development of individuals who are not only academically proficient but also socially conscious and culturally sensitive to global issues. By analyzing the Grade 9 English coursebook, the research also revealed how international mindedness is integrated into the English curriculum, offering insights for educators and policymakers to raise internationally-minded individuals.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme on the International Baccalaureate learner profile attributes of Turkish high school students
    (Bilkent University, 2023-12) Cinli, Ülfet Burcu
    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programme follows a model that connects child development to cognition and metacognition (Bullock, 2011). The IB Learner Profile (IBLP) attributes are the way IB ensures that both aspects of education are a part of IB education. This study investigates to what extent the IB Diploma Programme (IB DP) impacts student acquisition of IBLP attributes and its interaction with the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness. Participants (N = 180) were chosen from the same school and were grouped as either IB DP or non-IB students. Inherent personality traits conscientiousness and openness to experience from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) were used as covariates. Furthermore, the IB DP is analysed to investigate if IB DP can substitute low personality traits. Findings support the following: (1) the IB DP students score higher for knowledgeable, inquirer, and open-minded IBLP attributes, (2) When inherent personality traits are controlled, the IB DP students score higher for the inquirer and open-minded IBLP attributes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A comparative content analysis of two children’s mathematics books: The cat in numberland and jayden’s rescue
    (Bilkent University, 2023-09) Akyol, Firdevs Meltem
    Children’s mathematics books are receiving increasing attention by teachers and parents around the world. However, the choice of these books is highly depending on the popularity of the book or the publisher’s suggestion lists. This study aims to shed light to how to measure the quality of children’s mathematics books and observe the addressed mathematical skills and outcomes of it. By descriptive analysis of the content analysis and the content domain specific typology, this study shows two different methods to evaluate different aspects of any children’s mathematics book. In this study two children’s books were analyzed: Jayden’s Rescue and The Cat in Numberland. The results of this study show that the two books have different mathematical skills and objectives, and different approaches to mathematical modelling. The authors' different motivations shaped these outcomes, skills, and levels for these books. The Cat in Numberland introduces sophisticated topics like countable infinities to its inquiring readers whereas Jayden’s Rescue helps its readers to gain problem-solving skills for their mathematics lessons.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predicting middle school students’ mathematics achievement using decision trees
    (Bilkent University, 2023-09) Yeter, Buse
    In today's world, it is crucial to raise individuals who can think critically and flexibly, see things from a variety of perspectives, and develop creative solutions to common challenges in many countries including Türkiye. One of the ways to attain this purpose is to provide qualified mathematics education. During this qualified education determining the extent to which students meet the program goals is an important and fundamental part of the process of educating the individuals. Education should be provided in accordance with the requirements of the age using a curriculum with qualified measurement, assessment, and evaluation practices. This study aims to predict middle school students’ achievement at four grade levels in mathematics at the end of the semester utilized as a predictor measurement and assessment approach. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID), a decision tree analysis, was used to examine the importance of exams, quizzes, homework, and teacher observation in predicting the end-of-semester achievements. As a result of the study, when the first semester is examined in general, quizzes are mostly determined as the best predictor of student success, while exams are generally for the second semester. Implications for teachers and students are stated.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effective mentoring for biology teaching: insights of mentors and supervisors
    (Bilkent University, 2023-08) Vural, Neşe
    This study investigated the purposes, perspectives and practices of mentors in mentoring preservice teachers as well as the insights of supervisors regarding effective mentoring for biology teaching by attempting to determine their respective stances on the matter through a mixed method design. The purposes of mentors to work with preservice teachers and the mentoring practices that they found effective were explored through Mentoring Conceptions and Motivations Scale adopted by a research project (TÜBİTAK, 220K086) and follow-up semi-structured interviews with a subset of mentors. Furthermore, Area Specialized Effective Mentoring Opinion Form was used to reveal supervisors’ opinions about effective mentoring for biology teaching. The result of the study showed that biology mentors hold developmental conceptions dominant to instrumental conceptions. In addition, it was found that payment and sense of belonging also play a role in motivating mentors to guide preservice teachers for biology teaching besides personal learning and generative outcome motives. Effective biology mentoring practices characterized under five themes by mentors: “Tripartite Cooperation (TRIAD)”, “Area-specialized Teaching”, “Teaching profession introduction practices”, “Pedagogical Knowledge” and “Content Knowledge”. Moreover, the analysis of supervisors’ responses on effective mentoring in biology teaching yielded “Triad Cooperation in Teaching Practicum (TRIAD)”, “Mentoring Practices in Teaching Practicum”, and “The Characteristics of the Mentor” themes. This study provides valuable insights into the understanding of effective biology mentoring by shedding light on mentors’ purposes, perspectives and practices as well as supervisors’ opinions. Therefore, this research can contribute to the improvement of mentoring experiences for biology teaching and professional development of preservice teachers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Habits of mind of primary school teachers implementing technology during emergency remote teaching
    (Bilkent University, 2023-06) Tuysuzoglu, Amber Lee
    This study used narrative inquiry to analyze how four primary school English teachers described the challenges they faced while teaching remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic and how they handled these challenges, particularly with technology during online instruction. The purpose of this exploration was to identify the ways of thinking or Habits of Mind participants exhibited when dealing with the challenges. Through thematic analysis, participants’ narratives were aligned with intelligent behaviors. The study found that there were seven Habits of Mind commonly used by teachers to address the problems they faced during emergency remote teaching. A conceptual framework was used to link these Habits of Mind to educational theories. Constructivism, self-regulated learning, and incremental learning were among the theories that could be used to explain teachers’ persistence, inquiry, and continuous efforts to learn technology, aself-improvement. The outcomes indicate that these educational theories can be emphasized in teacher education programs to foster constructive and supportive Habits of Mind that will help teachers address and overcome technological challenges.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of quality of motivation and mindset on teaching style in English language instructors
    (Bilkent University, 2023-05) Akay, Vahide Teke
    The present experimental study tested whether inducing English language instructors’ autonomous or controlled motivation and their fixed or growth mindset about teaching ability influence their autonomy-supportive versus controlling teaching style. A hundred and fifty-six English language instructors working at the preparatory programs of state and non-profit foundation universities in Turkey participated in the study. The results of t-tests showed that participants in the autonomous motivation and growth mindset conditions endorsed their conditions to a larger extent than the teachers in controlled motivation and fixed mindset conditions. However, Factorial ANOVA indicated that neither the main effect of each condition nor the interaction of the conditions predicted the participant English language instructors’ autonomy-supportive or controlling teaching style. Furthermore, supplementary analyses revealed that teachers from non-profit foundation universities and younger teachers reported higher autonomy-supportive teaching style than teachers from state universities and older teachers. The findings are discussed in terms of their methodological and educational implications.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of imposter-related groups based in PISA 2018 dataset
    (Bilkent University, 2023-01) Koç, Elif
    Comparison of imposter-related groups based in PISA 2018 dataset Fraudulent feelings affect some people in a way that they don’t attribute their success to effort and intelligence. Instead, they feel that they succeed because of luck or a mistake. These people are said to have imposter syndrome (Koç Doğan & Yenel, 2022). Identification of factors associated with imposter syndrome during school years may help (Corkett & Benevides, 2011). The study aims to examine the differences between three student groups: students with imposter feeling, students with imposter syndrome, and students without imposter syndrome based on PISA 2018 data. The students were separated into three groups, which are students with imposter feeling, students with imposter syndrome and without imposter syndrome, according to their self-efficacy, fear of failure, and mathematical literacy performances. Comparisons among three groups were made with respect to variables that are associated with imposter syndrome. The means of each group were compared. Results indicated that imposter syndrome and imposter feeling could be related to students’ economic, social, and cultural status, sense of belonging to the school, parental support, and attitudes toward competition.
  • ItemRestricted
    A content analysis on open-mindedness of the IB Language A Guide and the Turkish Language and Literature curriculum and associated grade 11 textbook
    (Bilkent University, 2023-02) Sürün, Şerife
    In education, open-mindedness is a fundamental understanding of enabling students to think critically and rationally. The contribution of open-mindedness, especially as a result of the modern education approach, to the development of the cognitive behaviors of the students for innovative ideas is significant. Especially since the 1980s, the importance of applying the principle of open-mindedness in education has been a subject of intense debate in the literature. In the current study, the researcher, who is a Turkish Language and Literature instructor, was interested in supporting the development of her students’ open-mindedness. She conducted a content analysis to examine how open-mindedness is represented in the IB Language A: Language and Literature Guide, the Turkish Language and Literature Curriculum in line with the open-minded approach. The content analysis was based on a conceptual framework that examined five components of open-mindedness: culture, social, political, economic, and environmental. None of the materials fully covered all the components and she will need to identify additional resources and strategies to help students develop their open-mindedness.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Emergency remote teaching in Turkey: a systematic literature review
    (Bilkent University, 2022-12) İnal, Selin
    The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) during COVID-19 period in Turkey which started on March 23, 2020 and continued until the end of the spring term 2019-2020 in K12 and higher education context. The study sample consisted of 52 articles which were located from Scopus, ERIC and DergiPark databases through search criteria and examined under systematic literature review procedures. Articles are categorized according to their demographic data; methodology, data collection tools, size of the sample, sample type, level of the sample, curricular area, and digital platforms. Results indicated that qualitative research methods were the most preferred amongst the studies, conducted mostly in the higher education level. Sample sizes of the studies differed between 0-400 and small-scale research was the most popular. Amongst the articles, video conferencing tool Zoom was the most encountered digital tool. The research articles were reviewed to locate the changes happened within the teaching-learning cycle during ERT period regarding students and teachers of K12 and higher education contexts. Findings included following patterns; concepts of context as accessibility, flexibility of time and space, characteristics of home environments, internet and infrastructure problems, inequalities in possession of required technology; concepts of classroom processes as participation, use of materials and communication between students and instructors; concepts of input as content, students’ levels of interest and motivation, students’ study habits and students’ learning style. Implications for practice and implications for further research were given.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Knowledge about, practice in, attitude toward risky play: a case study from a school in Türkiye
    (Bilkent University, 2023-01) Şimşek, Merve
    This study was conducted to examine teachers’ knowledge about, practice in, and attitude toward risky play. Participants of the study are coming from different cultures and educational backgrounds. With so, the study is to be examining the effect of culture towards risky play. This case study investigates a school that is using two different educational programs; the classes in the school are all taught by one national and one international teacher. Participants for the study are chosen via purposeful and convenience sampling methods. Data for the study collected via semi-structured and one-on-one interviews. Data analyses revealed that teachers’ nationalities are not a determining factor on knowledge about, practice in and attitude toward risky play. Indirectly, their upbringing, the country they grew up in and the year of teaching experience influenced their attitudes towards risky play.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Differences in scientific epistemic beliefs among regions and school types in Turkey
    (Bilkent University, 2022-10) Çözeli, Fatma
    The purpose of this study was to reveal differences in students’ scientific epistemic beliefs between geographic regions and school type in Turkey. The geographic regions were selected as 12 NUTS-1 regions and school types were general secondary schools and vocational and technical secondary schools. The reason why this study was deemed necessary was that educational inequalities in Turkey seem to be decreasing the well-being of the citizens and the full economic potential of the country. Attention is especially drawn to science education because we live in the information age where ability in producing knowledge in science and technology is highly rewarded. Moreover, science education in Turkey has rooms for development. The data was pooled from the 2015 PISA cycle (which included 6 4-point Likert scale items on scientific epistemic beliefs), and a two-way ANOVA was carried out via SPSS to examine mean differences with respect to regions and schools, and also their interactions. Concerning significant results were revealed for the Northeast Anatolia Region’s vocational and technical secondary students. Significant between school differences also seem to require more attention. However, practical significance of the study was small.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sustainable development goals in the IB primary years programme
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Lund, Namrata
    Planet Earth’s natural resources are fast depleting. The pressure of about seven billion people is taking its toll on all ecosystems. Today we have a depleted ozone layer, acid rain, oil spills, nuclear accidents, and health problems that have had an impact on health and education. Education is one of the important and sure ways to help change people’s values and behaviors thus encouraging sustainable lifestyles. This study explored the written International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (IB PYP) documents and saw if these documents help envelope the United Nations (UN) 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The results show that 17 SDGs are represented in the two IB PYP documents analyzed. However, an imbalance was observed and there was more weightage towards some of the SDGs and their targets and very little or none towards some SDGs and their targets. Further research is recommended in the taught International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (IB PYP).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dimensions of student evaluation of teaching forms at university level
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Karaca, Rabia Ceren
    When instructional effectiveness is evaluated, it is essential to gather data from different sources to obtain valid judgments. Among several ways to assess instructional effectiveness, Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET), also known as Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI), is a process applied towards the end of the term in many academic settings to collect data generally through a form on the students’ views about an instructor’s in-class teaching performance. However, certain factors might affect students’ responses to the items in the form during the SET process. That is, the dimensions of the form might be different from the initially developed one and different dimensions with different items might arise. The aim of the current study is to analyze the dimensions of an SET form in the preparatory school of a non-profit private university to see how different groups perceive the items in the SET form. The participants are all English language learners from different English language levels. The data were collected in the Fall term, in the 12th week of teaching, in the first contact hour. The data were analyzed through a software program running principal component analysis (PCA). The findings revealed that the structure of the form can be considered unidimensional and there is one dominant latent factor, named as instructional effectiveness by the researcher. In other words, the responses of the different groups are mostly related to instructional effectiveness and are not affected by other potential factors.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Perceived challenges and threats in math settings: investigating the effects of cognitive reappraisal instructions on math anxiety
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Sarı, İzel
    It’s widely accepted in all cultures and educational systems around the world that math anxiety negatively impacts people’s lives. However, anxiety is not always negative. When stress increases, “fight or flight” reaction is triggered to prepare our body’s response to a challenge or threat. Once you learn how stress responses can be used as an adaptive tool, it provides the student with ambition and motivation on the road to success. According to laboratory studies, cognitive reappraisal interventions can help students to alter their negative thoughts about anxiety. It can even improve students’ math performance by reducing math anxiety. In this study, I investigated whether cognitive reappraisal interventions applied before the mathematics exams affect students’ mathematics anxiety, perceived coping resources and academic performance. Forty undergraduate students from social sciences department of a non-profit private university in Turkey participated. In the pretest, students completed questionnaires about math anxiety and stress appraisals before Math Exam-1. In the posttest, students were randomly assigned to two conditions: treatment or control. While students in the treatment group (n = 26) were taught how stress can be used as an adaptive tool by focusing on its positive effects (cognitive reappraisal), students in the control group (n = 14) were asked to ignore stress. I found that while math exam anxiety was reduced in the treatment group, it increased in the control group, but this difference wasn’t statistically significant. No effect on students’ coping resources and academic achievement found. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessment literacy perceptions of tertiary level English language professionals
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Kılıç, Pınar
    The aim of this study was to explore the assessment literacy perceptions of English language professionals. This mixed method case study was conducted through surveys and interviews with English language professionals at the English preparatory school of a foundation university in Ankara, Turkey. The survey items were adapted from Kremmel and Harding (2020) with the purpose to explore the perceived assessment literacy levels of English language teachers. The survey was completed by 23 English language teachers, four assessment specialists and seven academic leaders. In addition, 10 teachers, four assessment specialists and seven academic leaders were interviewed to explore the perceived relationship between their assessment literacy and teaching quality. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis. The interview data were categorized based on the assessment literacy dimensions specified in Taylor’s framework (2013) and analyzed through thematic content analysis. The results indicated that English language teachers are moderately knowledgeable and slightly skilled in assessment literacy dimensions. The study also concluded that English language professionals establish a meaningful relationship between several dimensions of assessment literacy and their teaching quality. The overall results suggest that English language professionals need to be provided with further training to improve their assessment literacy and to empower assessment for learning.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Potential relationships among language-complexity variables, home-language variables and range of reading ability: evidence from PIRLS 2016 and PISA 2018
    (Bilkent University, 2022-09) Angell, Philip
    Reading is one of the most important skills for children to master during their time in school. It is strongly connected to life outcomes, and as such, education ministries place it at the centres of their education policies. English is one of the most challenging alphabetic languages to learn to read, and governments of anglophone countries have spent many years working to improve the effectiveness of their literacy education. However, when examining International Large-Scale Assessments, it is notable that although students in anglophone countries are able to achieve among the highest reading levels, their poorest readers lag much further behind than the poorest readers in similarly successful non-anglophone countries. This study made use of data from PIRLS (2016) and PISA (2018) to investigate possible relationships between range of reading ability and language complexity variables related to orthography and morphology, as well as between range of reading ability and home-language disparity in anglophone countries. Pearson correlational analyses showed that orthographic complexity and morphological complexity were moderately correlated with range of reading ability in both datasets. Orthographic transparency was found to be strongly correlated with range of reading ability in the PISA dataset and very strongly correlated in the PIRLS dataset. Morphological unpredictability was not found to be correlated with either dataset. Home-language disparity was not shown to be connected with range of reading ability in the PISA dataset, but in the PIRLS dataset, students who never spoke English at home were shown to have a wider range of reading ability than other students.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Meta-analysis on the effect of enrichment programs on the academic achievement of gifted and talented students
    (Bilkent University, 2022-08) Tosun, Ayten Sengü
    Much research has been conducted about gifted education recently. One of the most applied interventions in gifted education is enrichment. Enrichment is the teaching and learning process that increases the depth and complexity of typical school subjects. In this thesis, the effects of enrichment on the academic achievement of gifted and talented students, was examined. The meta-analytic procedure was used to determine the overall effect size. The researcher used Education Resources Information Center database (ERIC), the most comprehensive database on education literature, Bilkent online library, and Google Scholar to detect relevant studies. The studies were filtered to the studies published between 2013 and 2021. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 studies were determined to be included in this meta-analysis. The pooled effect size was estimated under the random-effects model using the R statistical software. The effect size measure used was Hedges’ g. The findings showed that enrichment programs had a positive moderate effect (g= 0.68, 95% CI [0.31, 1.05]) on students’ academic achievement. To investigate the robustness of the findings, heterogeneity analyses were conducted and publication bias was investigated through the funnel plot. High heterogeneity (I2=84.6%) of the findings supports the use of a random-effects model. Also, the funnel plot showed an asymmetry which might be the reason for this heterogeneity and/or a possible publication bias found in the literature. In addition, subgroup analyses were performed to check for possible reasons for this high heterogeneity.