Item Open AccessConducting Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony: structural deconstruction, core emotions and their correlation with conductorial grammar(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Erdinç, Deniz; Metin, IşınThis Thesis presents a musical analysis as well as a conducting guide on the performance and interpretation of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. The methodology follows a deconstruction of two contrasting movements of the work in an arch extending from bigger to smaller structures of form, harmony and orchestration. Each analyzed microstructure is then linked to a specific musical interpretation, and then to precise instructions concerning conductorial grammar and its correlation with core emotions. Item Open AccessThe Tchaikovsky violin concerto: revisions and repertoire for performance technique(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Alikperova, Sabina; Metin, IşınThis thesis deals with the Violin Concerto D major op.35, which was composed by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. 1893) in 1878 and is regarded by performers as a virtuosic rather than a symphonic concerto. A scholarly research that examines the concertos revisions is further supplemented with research into correlated repertoire for violin performance technique. The research finds that the revisions introduced to the concerto were by master violin performers and their students, some of whom knew Tchaikovsky as well as others who represented their own school of violin performance. The technical repertoire research highlights correlated repertoire such as etudes and caprices serving to advance the violin technique of the performers. Based on the research, this study thus argues that the concerto’s revisions, which included shortening repetitive passages, removal of double stops, and paying more attention to elaborations, are primarily related to the solo violin part, in particular its instrument technique and performance technique. Item Open AccessA review of spatial auditory scene assessment approaches(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Golubkova, Kristina; Türkmen, OnurThe state-of-the-art research in sound technologies is now increasingly focused on augmented reality systems, which use spatial auditory content to represent information beyond that encountered in the real world. Successful implementation of spatial sound on such a large scale requires comprehensive and reliable research data in acoustics, cognition, and the principle of auditory processing. The main contribution of Rumsey's scene-based paradigm is a theoretical framework for the description and analysis of space-related scenes. This thesis presents an overview of the existing research related to the perception of spatial sound within three domains: spatial hearing and cognition, spatialisation, and evaluation of spatial quality attributes. Item RestrictedBeyond reduced listening: understanding the phenomenology of Pierre Schaeffer(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Aslan, Deniz; Yayalar, Tahsin TolgaPierre Schaeffer has produced a large body of work that consists of both music and a wide-ranging theory for the aesthetics of Musique Concrète. In his Traité Des Objets Musicaux (1966), he lays out a philosophical framework for the genre, where he theorizes the notion of sound object as the primary element of the genre's aesthetical foundation and proposes various ways of describing and categorizing sound objects based on their sole perceptual qualities. His theorization of the sound object is prominently based on phenomenological thinking, which suggests the significance of phenomenology in his compositions as well. The primary objective of this thesis will be to understand Pierre Schaeffer's conception and implementation of phenomenology through the examination of his music, theory, and the relationship between them. Therefore, the inherent rela-tion between reduced listening and phenomenological reduction, and the significance of intentionality in this relationship; the notion of sound object with respect to the notion of object in phenomenology; and the primary role of composition in the transcendence of musical experience of Musique Concrète is discussed. This study intends to capture the role of phenomenology in the sole experience of Musique Concrète, which, hopefully, transcends a structural analysis of Schaeffer's music or a phenomenological analysis of Schaeffer's theory. Item Open AccessTexture and form in Beat Furrer’s music: an analysis of Presto, and A due(Bilkent University, 2021-03) H. Javaheri, Mohammad; Yayalar, Tahsin TolgaFrequently used techniques between the compositions of one specific composer can cause recognizability. It is conceivable to tie compositions to their creator by detecting similar compositional approaches or certain specific techniques and craftsmanship. One of the ways of developing a certain character as a composer is rooted in elaborating and emphasizing a limited number of compositional materials in different frameworks. This thesis aims to show Beat Furrer’s écriture in two of his 1997's works, Presto and a due, which have several common elements and similar approaches in their compositional process. Besides, the thesis traces Furrer’s approach towards compositional crafts in both pieces to explore the gathering of his techniques in using patterns. In these pieces, his patterns' organization includes pitch, pitch class, interval, and rhythmic patterns, which is possible to refer them to a post-serialism approach. In order to grasp this statement, this thesis analyzes texture, form and their relation in Beat Ferrer’s music. By analyzing the two pieces and discussing the mutual methods and procedure between them, this thesis aims to discover his attitudes as a composer for the indicated pieces, which at the end leads to the recognizability of the composer by the listener. Item Open AccessMusical structure analysis, conducting and interpretation guide to Halmammedov Symphony No.1(Bilkent University, 2020-12) Rahmedov, Rustam; Metin, IşınThis thesis provides musical structure analysis and conductorial guidance on the performance and interpretation of Nury Halmammedov’s Symphony No.1. The methodology follows deconstruction of the work from macro structures of form and tonal landscapes to microstructures of phrase and musical figures. Textures of the musical language structure are taken apart to reveal dynamic, rhythmic and tonal layering with proofs obtained from the orchestration. The relation of the composer’s musical language with that of traditional Turkmen music is held in focus. Musical context analysis is extended through an insight on the interpretory psychological elements of the work. Guidence on the interpretation of the work from a conductor’s approach is reached through this analysis and definite instructions on conductorial grammer, gestural posture and expressive gestures are offered for each section making up the complete work. Item Open AccessThe uncanny valley in contemporary music(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Çekem, Artun; Türkmen, OnurThe uncanny valley theory explores the particular disturbance felt towards an entity in relation to the degree of human-likeness that is portrayed through that entity’s anthropomorphic traits. Although the concept initially emerged from the field of robotics, its far-reaching influence on aesthetics became notably manifest in art. On the other hand, this aesthetic understanding also had roots in an earlier, seminal concept referred to as the uncanny (das Unheimliche). Within this context, this thesis will first of all outline the critical relationship between the uncanny and uncanny valley concepts under the overarching topic of uncanny aesthetics. The primary objective of this thesis will be to identify the various occurrences of the uncanny valley effect in contemporary music. For this purpose, the causal factors of the phenomenon has been divided into seven categories, being Bodily Appearance, Bodily Motion (Gesture, Facial Expression, Corporeality), Speech, Voice, Persona, Crossmodal Mismatch, and Fiction. Each category and subcategory will be matched with a pertinent example from contemporary music, followed by a discussion on the emotional and contextual significances of the specified categories within those works. Ultimately, this thesis intends to draw a historical correlation between uncanny aesthetics and the various artistic approaches that can be observed in the referenced contemporary music works. Item Open AccessSpatial audio reproduction techniques and their application to musical composition: the analysis of “wunderkammer”, “point-instant” and “hollow”(Bilkent University, 2019-08) Dağlık, Engin; Yayalar, TolgaThe use of space is considered as a structural part of a musical composition. The developments in the spatial audio reproduction technology has changed the way we perceive the sound. So, it is inevitable to put emphasis on ”composing space” in parallel with ”composing sound”. This thesis is aimed at composers who seek how recent spatial audio reproduction technology contributes to the compositional process. In order to grasp the idea behind ”composing space” by using recent spatial audio reproduction methods; the importance of space in history, pioneering technological innovations in audio technology, brief technical explanations of the spatialisation techniques and analysis of three pieces in the context of spatial audio reproduction technologies will be presented and discussed throughout the text. Item Open AccessSyntactic versus semantic stand: analysis of Jonty Harrison’s Klang and Surface Tension(Bilkent University, 2019-08) Çağlarcan, Deniz; Yayalar, TolgaDuring the 1980s and 1990s, English electroacoustic music composer Jonty Harrison (1952-) composed a series of tape pieces and collected them in an album called ´Evidence mat´erielle in 2000. In this thesis, two pieces, Klang (1982) and Surface Tension (1996) have been analyzed in order to place them accurately within the contextual framework drawn by Pierre Schaeffer, R. Murray Schafer, and Simon Emmerson. To discover the relationship of those concepts to Harrison’s music, the author investigated Pierre Schaeffer’s Treatise on Musical Objects (1966 edition), R. Murray Schafer’s The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World (1977 edition) and Simon Emmerson’s The Language of Electroacoustic Music (1986 edition). The intention of this work is to explore the musical connections between syntactic and semantic usage of the sound source on Jonty Harrison’s Klang and Surface Tension regarding the musical approaches of Pierre Schaeffer and R. Murray Schafer. Item Open AccessAbout the artistic and performing features of violin works of Gara Garayev(Bilkent University, 2019-05) Ganioğlu, Ceyla; Aykal, GürerGarayev’s unique talents of music opened a new page in Azerbaijan’s music of 20th century. He adapted an untypical way of making music in which he was able to combine the traditional and the modern type. There are several substances that were brought in music of Azerbaijan by Garayev such as new themes, new images, and new means of composing. He achieved success not only in the areas of the national ballet, choral, and chamber music but also panned out well considering sonata for violin and piano and the violin concerto. These works represents main aspects and characteristics of Garayev’s music like implementation of national traditions while applying new methods of the 20th century, specifically neo-classicism and serial technique. In both sonata for violin and piano and the violin concerto, he reflects a perspective of synthesis of the two musical systems that are the Eastern and the Western. Hidden features of the past reveal while the means of modern music are observable in sonata for violin and piano. That is why, one can claim that Azerbaijani music was enriched by Garavey through his unusual implementations of new modern techniques. The work is shaped by some common features which provides an opportunity to unite all its parts internally in order to create true unity. Individual uniqueness of harmonic language, great quality of linear motions, and polyphonic forms are all used featly by the composer. Hence, while one senses the qualities and characteristics of the national musical language, s/he is able to experience classical and contemporary music in this work. Gara Garayev carries the outputs of the past and conceives an innovative synthesis where those outputs meet present techniques. This synthesis symbolizes the national musical thought with mostly Western patterns of genres and forms. Thus, with his high unmatched genre, in which esthetical principles, rules of traditional, and aspects of modern music such as twelve-tone system exist, Azerbaijan’s music was enriched and transported into a new level. Item Open AccessHenry Cowell'in piyanodan farklı tını elde etme teknikleri(Bilkent University, 2005) Önal, ElifUntil the beginning of 20th century, America composers mostly imitated the composers in Europe and believed that they should go to Europe for taking a proper music education. At the beginning of the 20th century, pioneers of American composers searched new sources to make their own music. Henry Cowell (1897-1965), was one of the first composers who achieved to make his music using attractive new musical sources of America. Cowell composed many pieces which suggested a wise and courageous approach to various sound sources, new composing techniques and non-European musical effects. He wrote a book titled “New Musical Resources” (1919), in which he explained his theories about the effect of overtones in music. He wanted to stimulate the society to listen and have some idea on contemporary music. For this purpose he established the “New Music Society” in 1925 in order to introduce 20th century composers and their works. He also started to issue “New Music Quarterly” in 1927 to publish the scores of those works. He taught at various music schools and many of his students have become well-known composers. Besides many seminars he wrote numerous articles. Cowell’s first experimental works originated from the possibilities of the piano, which were not frequently used before. Between 1920 and 1935, which is the period he concentrated on his experiments and developed his techniques, he worked on obtaining different sound qualities from the piano and he performed such works in concert halls, having both positive and negative critics. In the period 1935-1950 leaving his experimental works he was mostly interested in non-European music. Finally, from 1950 until his death, he tried to combine his previous innovations in his compositions. One of the techniques introduced by Cowell in order to obtain new sound qualities from the piano was the “tone cluster”, formed by playing more than two consecutive notes at the same time. Cowell used these clusters, which are played by full hand, forearm or fists, to reinforce his melodic lines. Cowell not only invented “tone cluster” term, but he developed a new notation to write them as well. Cowell’s other new technique was what he called “string piano”. His string piano compositions are played by plucking, pressing or rubbing the strings of the piano with fingers or palms. Cowell also used the idea of manipulating the strings of the piano with various tools to create new sonorities. This idea has been developed as “prepared piano” by John Cage in the following decades. Although Henry Cowell’s compositions do not take an important place in the literature of piano and are not performed frequently, they have an important influence either directly or indirectly on the twentieth century piano music.