Item Open AccessNo aspect of structure should be left behind inrelation to student autonomous motivation(John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2022) Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini; Michou, AikateriniBackground.Provision of structure in classroom settings constitutes one of the pillarsof conducive learning environments. However, little is known whether the particularelements of provided structure—namely, contingency, clear expectations, help andsupport, and monitoring—are equally important for student learning and motivation. Aims.In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate to what extent students’autonomous motivation is linearly and curvilinearly related to their perceptions of theirteachers’ contingency, clear expectations, help and support, and monitoring. Sample.Participants were 12,036Turkish adolescent students (age range: 15–19 years;54.4% males) from 446 classes, nested into 24 public schools. Methods.Cross-sectional, based on student ratings of their self-determined motivationand their teacher structure provision and autonomy support. Results.Multilevel and ordinary least-squares polynomial regression analyses showedall the four perceived structure elements to predict autonomous motivation, withexpectations and contingency (especially when coupled with monitoring) being evenmore important predictors than the other elements. Response surface analyses alsoshowed strong positive relation between autonomous motivation and all the possiblepairs of the four elements of perceived structure along the line of congruence, suggestingan additive effect when teachers are thought to be contingent and helpful and supportive(or monitor their students, or clearly communicate their expectations).Conclusions.These findings imply the key role that teachers could play in enhancingtheir students’ autonomous motivation by providing all the elements of structure. Item Open AccessLearner profile attributes in IB teaching: Insights from a continuum school in Turkey(SAGE, 2022) Keser, Özlem; Altan, Servet; Lane, Jennie F.; Keser, Özlem; Lane, Jennie F.This article presents findings from a case study of a K-12 school in Turkey where teachers shared perceptions of how the International Baccalaureate Learner Profile attributes related to their own practice. While discussing the interdependency of the attributes, teachers considered that being an inquirer is the most valuable attribute for effective International Baccalaureate teachers. Participants at all grade levels believed that being open-minded and reflective were important attributes. Despite the importance of inquiry, participants shared that they feel most capable of implementing the attribute of being knowledgeable. The conceptual framework developed for this study may be used by schools and teacher educators to develop attributes of teachers who can help students become global citizens with intercultural understandings. Item EmbargoEstablishing an institutional EAP teacher development scheme based on BALEAP's competency framework: A critical review of the competencies(Elsevier Ltd, 2022-09-23) Aksit, Tijen; Aksit, Necmi; Aksit, Tijen; Aksit, Necmi; Aksit, Necmi|0000-0003-1382-6664 Item Open AccessThe contribution of personal epistemological beliefs to uptake in in-service professional development: a case-study(Routledge, 2021-04-22) Atlı, Hilal Handan; O’Dwyer, John; Atlı, Hilal Handan; O’Dwyer, JohnFormal in-service professional development programmes may help novice teachers or those new to a school adapt to targeted teaching approaches in their new workplace. However, the extent to which their practice changes in response to in-service learning may depend on prior beliefs. This longitudinal case study explored in-depth the personal epistemological beliefs of four pre-sessional English language teachers, international and national, in an English-medium university context in Turkey during a year-long, formal in-service teacher education course, and for 6 months after the course. It investigated changes in classroom practice and beliefs about knowledge and knowing, teaching and learning, and professional learning as a result of in-service learning. Interviews, classroom observations and reflective journals underpinned a hermeneutic analysis which compared informants’ beliefs and classroom practice over time using an existing theoretical model. Underlying patterns of change in epistemological beliefs show belief type, depth, and sophistication, as well as context, as major factors in the uptake and sustainability of targeted teaching approaches in this context. In-service educators’ knowledge of a teacher’s epistemological beliefs profile can lead to more effective and sustainable uptake in formal in-service professional learning through differentiated, practice-based interventions. Item Open AccessProcrastination, perceived maternal psychological control, and structure in math class: The intervening role of academic self-concept(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021-04-15) Selçuk, Ş.; Koçak, A.; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini; Sayıl, M.; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, AikateriniDo students procrastinate less when their parents psychologically press them to study? Or do they show procrastination when classroom environment lacks structure? In this study, we aimed to investigate to what extent perceived maternal psychological control and perceived classroom structure in math class relate to adolescents' academic procrastination in math via adolescents’ academic self-concept in math. Three hundred fifty-three adolescents (M age = 16.86 years, SD = 1.35) rated maternal psychological control, structure provided by their math teachers, their own academic self-concept in math, and academic procrastination in math. Results from structural equation model indicated that procrastination in math was positively predicted by achievement-oriented psychological control and negatively by perceived provision of structure by means of academic self-concept in math. Based on the current findings, we provided some suggestions for school counselors and other specialists. Item Open AccessIt is autonomous, not controlled motivation that counts: Linear and curvilinear relations of autonomous and controlled motivation to school grades(Elsevier, 2020-12-07) Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini; Sayil, M.; Altan, Servet; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini; Altan, ServetCan controlled motivation contribute to desired educational outcomes such as academic achievement over and above autonomous motivation? No, According to Self-Determination Theory. Yet, some recent findings have shown that controlled motivation may not fully undermine motivated behavior when autonomous motivation remains high. In this study, we tested this possibility through two different samples of more than 3000 Turkish adolescent students. Through polynomial regression and response surface analyses we found only slim evidence that high controlled motivation can predict higher grades. Instead, a consistent finding that emerged was that higher grades were expected when high levels of autonomous motivation coincided with low levels of controlled motivation rather than high levels of controlled motivation. These findings highlight the usefulness of polynomial regressions and response surface analyses to examine pertinent questions which challenge the view that controlled motivation may not be as much detrimental as self-determination theory claims to be. Item Open AccessTutors’ beliefs about language and roles: practice as language policy in EMI contexts(Routledge, 2021-09-06) Heron, M.; Dippold, D.; Akşit, Necmi; Akşit, Tijen; Doubleday, J.; McKeown, K.; Akşit, Necmi; Akşit, TijenIt has been well established that for all students, but particularly second language (L2) English speaking students, academic English speaking skills are key to developing specialist terminology and disciplinary content in an English as a medium of instruction (EMI) context. However, what is less clear in many contexts is the institutional language policy necessary to guide and support both L2 English speaking students and disciplinary tutors. In this paper, we focus on disciplinary tutors’ beliefs of language and their roles with respect to language support to surface implicit and covert language policies. We argue that in the absence of explicit policy, showcasing the range of tutor perspectives and practice around language support can provide a way forward in explicating good practice and highlighting an approach in which all stakeholders take responsibility for supporting students’ academic speaking skills in an EMI context. Item Open AccessA content analysis of Turkish national high school health education curriculum using the health education curriculum analysis tool (HECAT)*(Ankara University, 2021-01-15) Serin, Volkan; Ateşkan, Armağan; Serin, Volkan; Ateşkan, ArmağanHealth education helps students to promote their mental, social and physical well-being. Health educators follow a specific curriculum for health promotion in the high schools of Turkey. This study compared Turkish national high school health education curriculum (HEC) which is delivered at grade 9 with the health education curriculum analysis tool (HECAT) used in the United States. Recommendations for possible new K-12 health education curriculum and for existing and further grade 9 curricula to improve was also given. Content analysis was used as a research method. In this research, an appraisal strength table was created which was adapted from HECAT in order to compare the curricula. Only 45 objectives in the national curriculum were found compatible with 1802 expectations of HECAT (correspondence rates: 6% for all grades and 7% for grades 9-12). Furthermore, the most represented level according to Bloom’s revised taxonomy cognitive domains was understanding, whereas applying was minimum represented level in HEC. The findings also indicate that health education delivery grades and contents should be expanded immediately in Turkey same as in the U.S. due to several reasons emerged recent years on health. Moreover, this research suggests to form Turkish national health education standards (TNHES) for K-12 education and draft TNHES were shared in this study. Item Open AccessTalking about talk: tutor and student expectations of oracy skills in higher education(Routledge, 2021-03-23) Heron, M.; Dippold, D.; Hosein, A.; Sullivan, A. K.; Aksit, Tijen; Aksit, Necmi; Doubleday, J.; McKeown, K.; Aksit, Tijen; Aksit, NecmiAlthough participation in academic speaking events is a key to developing disciplinary understanding, students for whom English is a second language may have limited access to these learning events due to an increasingly dialogic and active higher education pedagogy which places considerable demands on their oracy skills. Drawing on the Oracy Skills Framework we explore disciplinary tutors’ and students’ expectations of oracy skills required for disciplinary study. An analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data found that disciplinary tutors placed importance on the cognitive dimension of oracy skills such as argumentation and asking questions, whilst students placed importance on linguistic accuracy. The findings also suggest that tutors and students lack a shared metalanguage to talk about oracy skills. We argue that a divergence of expectations and lack of shared terminology can result in compromising students’ access to valuable classroom dialogue. The paper concludes with a number of practical suggestions through which both tutors and students can increase their understanding of oracy skills. Item Open AccessWeek-to-week interplay between teachers’ motivating style and students’ engagement(Routledge, 2021-03-15) Altan, Servet; Michou, Aikaterini; Mouratidisa, Athanasios; Reeveb, Johnmarshall; Malmbergc, Lars-Erik; Michou, Aikaterini; Altan, Servet; Mouratidisa, Athanasios; Reeveb, Johnmarshall; Malmbergc, Lars-ErikResearch has shown that teachers’ autonomy support and provision of structure relate to students’ agentic and behavioral engagement. Moreover, agentic engagement elicits higher teacher autonomy support. In the present 5-week diary study, we investigated the dynamic nature of this interplay between teachers and students through their cross-assessment of students’ agentic and behavioral engagement. We also considered the week-to-week student-reported teacher autonomy support and provision of structure as well as two student personal characteristics — proactive personality and situational autonomous versus controlled motivation. Two hundred fifty-seven Turkish middle school students and their teachers from 13 classes participated in the study. Multilevel analyses showed that students’ week-to-week perceived autonomy support and initial level of autonomous motivation positively predicted week-to-week agentic engagement (teacher- and student-reported). Students’ week-to-week perceived structure positively predicted week-to-week agentic and behavioral engagement (student-, but not teacher-, reported). These findings indicate the interplay between students’ situational engagement and teachers’ situational motivating style (i.e., autonomy support and provision of structure). They also suggest greater predictive power for students’ situational motivation over the personal trait of proactive personality. Item Open AccessAnalysing school-museum relations to improve partnerships for learning: A case study(Türk Eğitim Derneği, 2020) Ateş, Aysun; Lane, Jennie F.; Ateş, Aysun; Lane, Jennie F.Field trips to museums can improve student learning by providing them with opportunities to see first-hand concepts they learned in the classroom. Unfortunately, perceived and real barriers may discourage partnerships between schools and museums for education. The current paper describes how case study methodology was used to examine relations between a school and museums. Through this case study, a phenomenographic research approach was used to gain insights into museum educators and teachers’ perceptions and practices related to museum education. The research was conducted in Ankara, Turkey, involving teachers from a private school and seven staff from local museums. This study utilized quantitative data to support qualitative data. Through interviews, questionnaires, and an analytical framework, the results revealed the importance of identifying roles associated with museum education and strengthening pathways for communication. Based on the results of the study, the authors provide suggestions to improve partnerships between a school and local museums. One strategy is to identify a school staff member who serves as a liaison between the school and the museums, ensuring consistent communication and sharing of ideas. Future research ideas for consideration are identified Item Open AccessWhat counts in number books? a content-domain specific typology to evaluate children’s books for mathematics(Routledge, 2020) Nurnberger-Haag, J.; Alexander, Anita N.; Powell, S. R.; Alexander, Anita N.Although the complexity of children’s number learning is recognized, trade books about number have been treated as a simple, undifferentiated set. This analysis of 186 children’s books, however, categorized a distinct subset of books about number as counting books. These counting books were complex with regard to portrayal of counting sequences, explicitness of counting, and degree of rationality. The analysis yielded the multi-dimensional Counting Book Typology, which revealed nuanced ways counting books accurately portray numerical ideas as well as ways books could mislead young readers. The typology could aid researchers investigating how children learn with books to focus study design decisions on particular mathematics content features, which would clarify and strengthen resulting implications. Furthermore, this study revealed the need for more such conceptual tools to advance theorizing about learning math with children’s books, which has been missing in research and practice. Item Open AccessLevel of knowledge, attitudes and interest of Turkish high school students towards cancer(Sage Publications, 2020-12) Yıldırım Usta, Ilgın; Ateşkan, Armağan; Yıldırım Usta, Ilgın; Ateşkan, ArmağanObjective: This study investigated Turkish high school students’ knowledge about risk factors for cancer, their interest in the disease, and their affective and behavioural attitudes towards it. Design: Quantitative survey. Setting: Data collection took place in three private schools in Central Turkey and one private school in Eastern Turkey. Method: Students (N=275; 56% female students, 44% male students) completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and described their level of knowledge regarding cancer risk factors, as well as their attitudes and interest in the disease. For data analysis, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, v.24.0) was used. Results: Results indicated that most students succeeded in identifying nearly all carcinogenic (except for overweight) and non-carcinogenic risk factors. In addition, while most participants held negative attitudes towards cancer, they typically did not exhibit cancer protective behaviours, and most participants were not interested in cancer as a topic. Conclusion: Exploring high school students’ levels of knowledge, attitudes and interests in regard to cancer may provide curriculum developers with information that enables the development of effective cancer education for Turkish high school students. Item Open AccessStudy efforts, learning strategies and test anxiety when striving for language competence: the role of utility value, self-efficacy, and reasons for learning English(Routledge, 2020) Üner, Ayça; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Kalender, İlker; Üner, Ayça; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Kalender, İlkerPrevious research has shown that utility value and expectancy for success, as well as the reasons for academic striving, could partly explain academic engagement. Yet, their joint role in predicting learning strategies and test anxiety has not been thoroughly understood, especially in contexts where pressure for success is high. We examined this issue in a sample of Turkish university students who were attending a language preparatory school (N = 1009; 53% males, Mage = 19.14 years; SD = 1.08) and were under the psychological pressure to pass their qualifying exams. Regression analyses showed that next to self-efficacy beliefs, it was intrinsic reasons which positively and consistently predicted learning strategies; in contrast, self-worth concerns positively predicted test anxiety. These relations emerged even among students who experienced failure and were thus psychologically pressed to succeed. Our findings suggest that intrinsic reasons for academic striving might play a decisive role even in psychologically pressuring contexts. Item Open AccessInternational mindedness: a revised conceptual framework(SAGE Publications, 2020) Metli, A.; Lane, Jennie F.; Lane, Jennie F.This paper suggests a revised framework for explaining, developing and assessing international mindedness (IM). A review of the literature – that presents initiatives, challenges, and debates regarding IM – concludes with an overview of selected conceptual frameworks that have been used to develop a shared understanding of IM. When the authors applied one of these frameworks in a previous empirical study, they found during data analysis that some aspects of the framework’s key pillars played a more supportive role and that other components of IM needed further identification. As a result, this paper proposes a revision of the framework that features intercultural competence and global engagement, and identifies more specific components of these attributes, namely knowledge, skills, dispositions, and agency. The paper includes another review of the literature to emphasise how these components are important for the development, implementation, and assessment of international mindedness. Item Open AccessEffects of a 5Es learning model on the conceptual understanding and science process skills of pre-service science teachers: the case of gases and gas laws(Serbian Chemical Society, 2020) Karslı-Baydere, Fethiye; Ayaş, Alipaşa; Çalık, M.; Ayaş, AlipaşaThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a 5Es learning model on the pre-service science teachers’ conceptual understanding and science process skills for “gases and gas laws”. The sample of the study consisted 49 pre-service science teachers enrolled for the “Science Laboratory Practices-I” course within the department of science education of a Turkish state university. Through a quasi-experimental research method (pre- and post- -test research design), an experimental group was exposed to the 5Es learning model (engage-explore-explain-elaborate-evaluate) with different conceptual change methods/techniques (i.e., worksheets, computer animations, analogies and experiments). A control group was also taught through existing instruction (e.g., experiments, lecture and question–answer). Data were collected through the gas laws test and the science process skills test. The results of partial eta squared (η2) revealed large-size effects for the control (0.61) and experimental groups (0.73). The 5Es learning model was more effective than the existing instruction in overcoming the pre-service science teachers’ alternative conceptions of “gases and gas laws”, as well as in improving their science process skills. The current study recommends that the 5Es learning model be tested with a larger sample throughout a long-term teaching intervention. Item Open AccessSimulate_CAT: a computer program for post-hoc simulation for computerized adaptive testing(Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Derneği, 2015) Kalender, İlker; Kalender, İlkerThis paper presents a computer software developed by the author. The software conducts post-hoc simulations for computerized adaptive testing based on real responses of examinees to paper and pencil tests under different parameters that can be defined by user. In this paper, short information is given about post-hoc simulations. After that, the working principle of the software is provided and a sample simulation with required input files is shown. And last, output files are described. Item Open AccessSınıf öğretmeni adaylarının fiziksel ve kimyasal değişme konusunda kavramsal değişim metinlerine karşı tutumları(Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi, 2017) Birinci-Konur, K.; Ayas, Alipaşa; Ayas, AlipaşaKavramsal değişim metinleri, öğrencilerin kavram yanılgılarının ve sebeplerinin neler olduğunu belirten ve bu yanlış kavramaların yetersiz olduğunu örneklerle birlikte açıklayıp ortaya koyan metinlerdir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının fiziksel ve kimyasal değişim konusunda kullanılan kavramsal değişim metinlerine karşı tutumlarının belirlenmesidir. Araştırma, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Üniversitesi 2009 yılında Sınıf Öğretmenliği Programı 1.sınıfında öğrenim gören 30 öğretmen adayı ile gerçekleştirilmişitr. Bu araştırmada deneysel araştırma modelinin kontrol grupsuz son test deseni kullanılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak, Kavramsal Değişim Metni Tutum Ölçeği (KDMTÖ) kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca kavramsal değişim metinleri ile ilgili öğretmen adaylarının yazılı görüşleri alınmıştır. Veri analizinde öğretmen adaylarının tutum ölçeğindeki her bir maddeye ilişkin ortalama puanları hesaplanmıştır. Yazılı görüşler ise belli kodlar altında sınıflandırılarak nitel olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmada, tutum ölçeğinden elde edilen bulgular öğretmen adaylarının kavramsal değişim metinlerine karşı tutumlarının oldukça yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir. Öğretmen adaylarının yazılı ifadelerinden elde edilen sonuçlar da tutumun bu derece yüksek olmasını destekler niteliktedir Item Open AccessProspective science teachers’ alternative conceptions about the chemistry issues(Balıkesir Üniversitesi Necatibey Eğitim Fakültesi, 2013) Karslı, F.; Ayas, Alipaşa; Ayas, AlipaşaThe aim of this study is to determine alternative conceptions of prospective science teachers about the concepts of “Evaporation and Boiling”, “Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions”, “Dissolution and Factors Affecting Solubility”, “Gas Laws”, “Factors Affecting Reaction Rate” and “Electrochemical Cells”. The sample of the study conducted according to a case study consisted of 97 third-year students enrolled in Department of Science Teaching Programme in Faculty of Education in Giresun University. As the data collection tool, two- tier Chemistry Concept Tests (CCTs) developed by Karslı (2011) was used in this study. The results obtained from CCTs’ data indicated that the prospective science teachers have various alternative conceptions about the chemistry concepts also reported in the literature and not mentioned in the literature. Within this research, possible causes of the alternative concepts determined in this study discussed, and some recommendations are presented for the elimination of these alternative concepts. Item Open AccessComputerized adaptive testing for student selection to higher education(Deomed, 2012) Kalender, İlker; Kalender, İlkerThe purpose of the present study is to discuss applicability of computerized adaptive testing format as an alternative for current student selection examinations to higher education in Turkey. In the study, first problems associated with current student selection system are given. These problems exerts pressure on students that results in test anxiety, produce measurement experiences that can be criticized, and lessen credibility of student selection system. Next, computerized adaptive test are introduced and advantages they provide are presented. Then results of a study that used two research designs (simulation and live testing) were presented. Results revealed that (i) computerized adaptive format provided a reduction up to 80% in the number of items given to students compared to paper and pencil format of student selection examination, (ii) ability estimations have high reliabilities. Correlations between ability estimations obtained from simulation and traditional format were higher than 0.80. At the end of the study solutions provided by computerized adaptive testing implementation to the current problems were discussed. Also some issues for application of CAT format for student selection examinations in Turkey are given.