Browsing Faculty of Art, Design And Architecture by Issue Date
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Item Open AccessA knowledge-based space planning system(Taylor & Francis, 1992) Demirkan, H.; Pultar, M.; Özgüç, B.Knowledge-based systems are potentially powerful tools for improving the results of automated or interactive design procedures. Expert Space Planner is a prototype of such a system that uses production rules in the spatial planning of panel houses. © 1992 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Item Open AccessTypologies in photography(ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi, 1994) İncirlioğlu, C. Güven; İncirlioğlu, C. GüvenCertain trends in recent photographic art, their relation to the idea of typology and to architecture motivated the writing of this essay. Physiognomy, as the content of portrait photography and as an analogy for the nature of photographic images of any kind, is relevant to the issue of typology. The curatorial profession in the world of art aspires for interpreting, grouping and physically exhibiting a number of artworks by one or more artists, mostly around a theme or a relevant problematic, an issue. One such exhibition that I will refer here, which traveled the United states in 1991 and 1992, is called “Typologies: Nine Contemporary Photographers”, and was curated by Marc Freidus. Among the 'nine', more than half were German who made series of photographs of “types” (of buildings, interiors, people, streets, landscapes, etc.). Within this group are Bernd and Hilla Becher, a husband and wife team, of great significance for this essay. Item Open AccessProposal for improving computer aid in architectural design(Taylor & Francis, 1994) Şenyapılı, B.; Özgüç, B.Based on various factors that influence the role of computers in architectural design, techniques are discussed aiming at the creation of a highly interactive environment where designers can model not only the physical building they are working on, but the procedures, methods and techniques they use during the design process. Item Open AccessTurkey: a report on computer graphics education(Technews, 1996) Özgüç, B.In a formal or an informal manner, computer graphics has been a field of research and education since the early 1970s in Turkey. The earlier examples of academic research work came from Istanbul Technical University and Middle East Technical University in Ankara. Istanbul Technical University research efforts were basically on computer-aided design, whereas at the Middle East Technical University, more theoretical computer graphics work has been carried on.Two examples can be given of early theoretical graphics work: A hidden line elimination algorithm by Ibrahim Canbulat, and an automated drafting algorithm by the author [2, 3]. To the best of my knowledge, the earliest official computer graphics course was offered at the Middle East Technical University in 1979. With the establishment of Bilkent University in Ankara, the first private university in Turkey, computer graphics became an official track of study, not only in computer engineering, but in fine arts as well.In this paper, we examine the current state of computer graphics education in Turkey under two main headings. First, the educational activities within the departments of computer science will be examined. Then, the educational activities within the schools of art and design will be looked at. In order to find out the educational activities at various universities, we have written to 52 departments at 40 universities. The information given in this report is based on the responses from these departments. Many departments at various schools offer technical drawing courses by the use of drafting software. These have not been classified as computer graphics courses. Item Open AccessA proposal for 'correction values' for winter outdoor design temperatures(Elsevier, 1996) Demirbilek F. N.; Yener, C.This study aims to find a correlation between winter outdoor design temperature (WDT) and mass of the building envelope. The daily variations of the inside surface temperatures and heal fluxes of the walls under various climatic conditions and different wall constructions have been calculated by a computer program based on the response factor technique, which uses variable outside air temperature and solar radiation and constant inside air temperature values as input climatic data. The analysis of the relation between mass of the walls and inside surface heat fluxes resulted with the correction values for winter design temperature (WDTCV) depending on the mass of the wall and on the direction of facades for different climatic zones. Item Open AccessFouilles des ateliers d'amphores à Demirci près de Sinope en 1994 et 1995(Persée - Institut Francais d'Etudes Anatoliennes, 1996) Tezgör, D. K. Item Open AccessThe true model concept in computer simulations used in architectural design(IRIS-ISIS Publications, 1996) Şenyapılı, Burcu; Mertens, B.Most of the studies on the effective use of the potential of computer aid in architectural design assert that the way architects design without the computer is not “related” to the way they design with the computer. In other words, they complain that the architectural design software does not work as the architects think and that the way designers model with computers is not similar to the way they actually construct the model in their brains. Within the above framework, this study initially discusses architectural design as a modeling process and defines computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality) as models. Based on this discussion, the “similarity” of architectural design and computer aided design is displayed. And then, it is asserted that in order to improve the computer aid to architectural design, it is not the issue of similarity, but of the “trueness” of the computer generated model that needs to be discussed. Consequently, it is relevant to ask to what extent should the simulation simulate the design model. The study proposes measures as to how true a simulation model should be in order to represent the design model inherent in the designer’s mind, best. Item Open AccessThe distribution of urban public services: The case of parks and recreational services in Ankara(Pergamon, 1997) Erkip(Beler), F.The provision of urban services is a central issue in urban planning and development. The distribution of these services to guarantee their effective utilization is another focus of concern. As citizens are heterogeneous in character, their access to urban public services is affected by the distribution of those services. Access to some services with fixed facilities is limited by the location of the service within a city. In this study, which focuses on the city of Ankara, Turkey, the parks and recreational facilities are evaluated in terms of both service and user characteristics. Since the service has a merited reputation due to the public and its free provision, a local government aiming for a just distribution claims to distribute the service 'equally' on a geographical basis. This study evaluates the current policy and proposes distributional justice to achieve a truly equitable distribution, which is sensitive to the characteristics of different citizen groups, instead of the territorial justice (i.e. park distribution based on geography) that cannot satisfy the conditions of effective utilization. Item Open AccessSilent interruptions urban encounters with rural Turkey(University of Washington Press, 1997) Nalbantoğlu, Gülsüm Baydar; Bozdoğan, S.; Kasaba, R.The architecture of rural Turkey has been a recurrent theme in the grand narrative of modern Turkish architecture. It was captured by a wave of nationalist and regionalist interests in the 1930s and early 1940s, valued by disappointed modernists in the 1960s, and rediscovered for its consumptive value in the 1980s. In the earlier phases, the proponents of regionalism had to draw careful distinctions between an ideal, sanitized, and immaculate rural imaginary and the unenviable state of real Turkish villages. Paradoxically perhaps, the rural imaginary privileged the model of an ideal, clean, orderly city and used it as a cultural and physical exemplar. 1 The impossibility of realizing this impeccable model became apparent after the unprecedented urban migrations of the 1950s onward-articulated with other social, political, and economic forces beyond the scope of this essay-which threatened the sanitized, controllable, and homogeneous urban vision of the republic's early leaders. The material effects of this process remain at the core of contemporary cultural studies in Turkey. Opinions are divided. While some lament the phenomenon, interpreting it as the evaporation of the last hopes of the Kemalist vision of cultural modernity, others celebrate it as a much desired plurality that strikes the final blow to homogenizing, elitist, and sterile attempts to create culture from above. This essay is written from a position calling for the opening up of a third space that neither authorizes "one" nor privileges "many." It attempts to uncover a cultural-architectural space of difference that disrupts preconstructed identities and essences, contesting plurality as a multiplication of sociological totalities; a space in which both essentialist constructions and relativist celebrations are avoided; a space of translation across the urban-rural boundaries set up by the nation's founding fathers. Item Open AccessVisualization of virtual architecture(IEEE, 1997) Şenyapılı, BurcuThis study constitutes a framework, a justification and a proposal for the opportunity to improve the use and efficiency of visualization of architecture in the virtual environment. It seeks a new platform to define architectural design communication. The design process depends upon creation of models and virtual environment offers the medium of exchange where the design model can be shared and criticized by people other than the designer; various analysis can be applied and the results of both can be used to change or improve the design. Possibilities offered by visualization do not fit into the paper-based way of architectural thinking. In order to benefit from the potential of visualization it is required to redefine architecture, architectural design process and architectural terms with respect to the virtual environment. This study introduces a transitional solution between the paper-based and the future ways of thinking in architecture by enabling the designers customize the visualization software according to their purposes. Item Open AccessFouilles des ateliers d'amphores à Demirci près de Sinop en 1996 et 1997(Persée - Institut Francais d'Etudes Anatoliennes, 1998) Tezgör, D. K.; Tatlıcan, İ. Item Open AccessHousing rehabilitation and its role in neighborhood change: a framework for evaluation(Locke Science, 1998) Ulusoy, Z.In most empirical studies of neighborhood change, particularly those on the issue of gentrification, the analysis focuses either on variations in population, transformations in the housing market, or modifications in the physical condition of buildings, without attending to the interaction of these different but interrelated aspects of residential change. Moreover, variations within a geographical area are lost since statistical data used pertain to areas larger than the neighborhoods themselves. Here, a framework of analysis that combines three aspects of neighborhood change, namely, changes in the physical stock,the housing market, and the population, is proposed. Data in these categories are collected at the level of individual properties and their interaction is studied. Various sequences and patterns of occurrence of these three aspects of residential change are argued to imply different intentions behind the practices of the many actors involved. Hence, the proposed framework clarifies the complexity of the process of neighborhood change and uncovers the dynamics behind it. This approach is applied to an inner city neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), in order to discuss and evaluate transformations experienced in the area in the 1980s.In most empirical studies of neighborhood change, particularly those on the issue of gentrification, the analysis focuses either on variations in population, transformations in the housing market, or modifications in the physical condition of buildings, without attending to the interaction of these different but interrelated aspects of residential change. Moreover, variations within a geographical area are lost since statistical data used pertain to areas larger than the neighborhoods themselves. Here, a framework of analysis that combines three aspects of neighborhood change, namely, changes in the physical stock, the housing market, and the population, is proposed. Data in these categories are collected at the level of individual properties and their interaction is studied. Various sequences and patterns of occurrence of these three aspects of residential change are argued to imply different intentions behind the practices of the many actors involved. Hence, the proposed framework clarifies the complexity of the process of neighborhood change and uncovers the dynamics behind it. This approach is applied to an inner city neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), in order to discuss and evaluate transformations experienced in the area in the 1980s. Item Open AccessInvolving the elderly in the design process(Taylor & Francis, 1998) Demirbilek (Saritabak), O.; Demirkan, H.Based on the concept of'aging in place', a prescriptive model is proposed, aiming at the creation of a usable, safe and attractive built environment where the elderly residents are actively involved in the design process through collaboration sessions. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been adapted to develop an evaluation and translation method for the collected data of the elderly end-users. Item Open AccessForeign investment in producer services: the Turkish experience in the post-1980 period(Liverpool University Press, 1998) Tokatlı, N.; Erkip, FeyzanSince 1980, Turkey has been changing its growth strategy from protectionist import substitution to one more market-oriented and outward looking. As the restructuring has unfolded, the domestic market has opened up to foreigners. This paper discusses the increasing involvement in the economy of producer service firms with foreign capital. We describe 278 such firms: when they entered the Turkish market, their countries of origin (mostly European Community countries), industry groups and ownership structure. The most popular choice of location has been Istanbul. Item Open AccessHousing conditions and activities of the middle-income Turkish household(Ural and Associates, 1998) Demirkan, Halime; Kutlusoy, SibelThe aim of this research is to study kitchen related space and storage requirements of residential units considering women's activity and practice patterns; and define current problems related to the kitchen of social houses in Turkey. It must be recognized that architects and designers have a responsibility to support changing lifestyles. The standards and performance specifications of the kitchen should be formed urgently, in order to improve the housing conditions in Turkey. Item Open AccessStudio instructors talk about skills, knowledge, and professional roles in architecture and landscape architecture(Sage, 1998) Hazer F.; Eyikan, B.This article examines the attitudes of studio instructors in architecture and landscape architecture departments throughout the United States toward the designer's role, sources of knowledge and inspiration in design, related disciplines, and essential skills. A cluster analysis of instructors' responses to a questionnaire identified five groups according to conceptions of professional identity: master designers, communicative designers, political designers, researcher designers, and those who see design, research, and political skills as almost equally important. The two most common self-conceptions are "master" and "negotiator." In-depth interviews with some instructors further elucidated each approach. The results revealed the coexistence of a multiplicity of ideas and convictions within a shared ethos and suggested various strategies for increasing the effectiveness of design education and practice. The article concludes that the professional identity of designers is being transformed from that of isolated creative individuals to that of politically active professionals.