A study on GaN-based betavoltaic batteries
In this paper, a GaN-based betavoltaic epitaxial structure was grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition and a p-type ohmic contact was studied for different Ni/Au metal thickness ratios, temperature dependent in N2:O2 (1:1) gas atmosphere and different surface treatments for this epitaxial structure. Transfer length method measurements were done after each different process condition in order to check specific contact resistivities. GaN-based betavoltaic batteries were fabricated and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used as an electron source to test these devices. For this purpose, devices connected to a printed circuit board were exposed to an electron current of 1.5 nA with 17 keV energy in the SEM. For 1 × 1 mm2 devices, a dark current value of 2.8 pA at 0 V, fill factor of 0.35, maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.92%, and maximum output power of 1 µW were obtained.