Advances in nanoparticle‐based medical diagnostic and therapeutic techniques
Advances in modern medicine have eliminated several major causes of human mortality and considerably extended life expectancies around the world; however, this increase in the global age average has also boosted the incidences of age‐associated disorders. These conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease, severely decrease the quality of life for the affected but are highly polymorphic and often difficult to treat. This chapter describes the characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents (CAs) proposed for use in medical imaging, and details the surface modification methods used to designate specific targets for their attachment. It then compares their effectiveness and toxicity compared to conventional methods of contrast enhancement, and discusses the contribution that nanoscience has had, and will have, on medical imaging and disease diagnosis at large.