Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: Experiments and simulations
We report the transmission characteristics of split-ring resonator and left-handed metamaterials (LHM) in the microwave frequency regime. A left-handed transmission band is observed at the frequencies where both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability are negative. The reflection characteristics of ordered and disordered LHMs are studied. The two-dimensional LHM structure is verified to have a negative refractive index. We employed three different methods to observe negative refraction: the beam shift method, refraction through wedge-shaped negative-index metamaterial, and phase-shift experiments.