Second generation Pichia pastoris strain and bioprocess designs
Yeast was the first microorganism used by mankind for biotransformation processes that laid the foundations of industrial biotechnology. In the last decade, Pichia pastoris has become the leading eukaryotic host organism for bioproduct generation. Most of the P. pastoris bioprocess operations has been relying on toxic methanol and glucose feed. In the actual bioeconomy era, for sustainable value-added bioproduct generation, non-conventional yeast P. pastoris bioprocess operations should be extended to low-cost and renewable substrates for large volume bio-based commodity productions. In this review, we evaluated the potential of P. pastoris for the establishment of circular bioeconomy due to its potential to generate industrially relevant bioproducts from renewable sources and waste streams in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. Furthermore, we discussed challenges with the second generation P. pastoris platforms and propose novel insights for future perspectives. In this regard, potential of low cost substrate candidates, i.e., lignocellulosic biomass components, cereal by-products, sugar industry by-products molasses and sugarcane bagasse, high fructose syrup by-products, biodiesel industry by-product crude glycerol, kitchen waste and other agri-food industry by products were evaluated for P. pastoris cell growth promoting effects and recombinant protein production. Further metabolic pathway engineering of P. pastoris to construct renewable and low cost substrate utilization pathways was discussed. Although, second generation P. pastoris bioprocess operations for valorisation of wastes and by-products still in its infancy, rapidly emerging synthetic biology tools and metabolic engineering of P. pastoris will pave the way for more sustainable environment and bioeconomy. From environmental point of view, second generation bioprocess development is also important for waste recycling otherwise disposal of carbon-rich effluents creates environmental concerns. P. pastoris high tolerance to toxic contaminants found in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate and industrial waste effluent crude glycerol provides the yeast with advantages to extend its applications toward second generation P. pastoris strain design and bioprocess engineering, in the years to come. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2022, The Author(s).