Housing experience of forced migrants: a comparison of Sweden and Turkey
This dissertation examines the housing experiences of forced migrants and how they are affected by different housing policies through a comparison between Turkey and Sweden. The concept of forced migrants, increasingly utilized in the field, was adopted based on the daily challenges faced by individuals with similar experiences, despite having different legal statuses. Beginning from this point, it addresses the situation of forced migrants amidst multi-layered urban complexity by embracing the super-diversity approach, which allows for the exploration of diverse experiences. The empirical section of the dissertation is built upon semi-structured interviews with three distinct groups: forced migrants, local people, and local experts in Gaziantep, Turkey, and Stockholm, Sweden. Initially, housing studies related to immigration are categorized based on their focus scales, linked to various aspects of the right to housing. Subsequently, legal documents pertaining to asylum and housing policies in Turkey and Sweden are examined, followed by a discussion of the fieldwork findings. The dissertation concludes that forced migrants encounter challenges across all dimensions of the right to housing whereas in Turkey, issues related to accessing affordable housing are prominent, while segregation is a more prevailing concern in Sweden. With a more intrusive housing policy in Sweden, forced migrants engage at an institutional level, while in Turkey, forced immigrants seek solutions within the social sphere. The study asserts that the subject of forced migrants does not exhibit uniform patterns as often depicted in the Global North or the Global South; numerous distinct forms are observable, particularly in the case of Turkey.