Design strategies for ratiometric chemosensors: modulation of excitation energy transfer at the energy donor site
Excitation energy transfer, when coupled to an ion-modulated ICT chromophore, creates novel opportunities in sensing. The direction of energy transfer and the point of ICT modulation can be varied as desired. In our previous work, we have shown that energy transfer efficiency between two energetically coupled fluorophores will be altered by the metal ion binding to the ICT chromophore carrying a ligand. There are two beneficial results: increased pseudo-Stokes shift and expanded dynamic range. Here, we explored the consequences of the modulation of energy transfer efficiency at the energy donor site, in a molecular design which has an ICT type metal ion-sensitive chromophore placed as the energy donor in the dyad. Clear advantages emerge compared to the acceptor site modulation: unaltered emission wavelength in the red end of the visible spectrum, while keeping a large Stokes shift and the ratiometric character. © 2009 American Chemical Society.