A retrospective comparison of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell and bone marrow transplantation results from a single center: a focus on the incidence of graft-vs.-host disease and relapse
To detect the effect of the stem cell source, allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (alloPBSCTs) performed between 1995 and 1997 from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings in 40 patients with acute and chronic hematological disorders were compared with a historical group of 40 patients with similar variables who had received allogeneic bone marrow transplants (alloBMTs) between 1993 and 1995. Patients in both groups were identical except that both the recipient and the donor ages were, on average, higher in the alloPBSCT group (26 vs. 36 [p = 0.005] and 27 vs. 32 [p = 0.024], respectively). Patients received similar therapy excluding posttransplant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration (97% in alloBMT vs. 12.5% in alloPBSCT). The median time to reach neutrophil counts >0.5×109/L and platelet counts >20×109/L was 13 and 14 days, respectively, in patients receiving alloPBSCTs compared with 19 and 27 days in patients receiving alloBMTs (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.0002). The alloPBSCT group required similar transfusions of red blood cells or platelets. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD) was similar in both groups. However, chronic GVHD (cGVHD) of all grades developed in 78.1% of patients in the alloPBSCT group after a median follow-up period of 12.5 (range 0.5-34) months. In alloBMT recipients, cGVHD of all grades developed in 21.4% after a median follow-up period of 38 (range 0.5-62) months (p = 0.00001). Day 100 transplant-related mortality was also similar: 20% (8 of 40) in the alloBMT patients and 17.5% (7 of 40) in the alloPBSCT group. Although not statistically significant, a relatively higher relapse rate occurred in the alloBMT group (21.4 vs. 10.7%). The estimated disease-free survival in month 24 was 51.3% for alloBMT and 54.6% for alloPBSCT, and the estimated overall survival in month 24 was 56.1% for alloBMT and 64.6% for alloPBSCT. In conclusion, this retrospective comparison suggests that alloPBSCT from HLA-identical donors is associated with faster engraftment, fewer transfusions, and no greater incidence of aGVHD, but a high incidence of cGVHD.