Adsorption of group IV elements on graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene: dumbbell formation

Date
2014-12-09
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Source Title
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Print ISSN
1932-7447
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ACS Publications
Volume
119
Issue
1
Pages
845 - 853
Language
English
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Abstract

Silicene and germanene derivatives constructed from periodic dumbbell units play a crucial role in multilayers of these honeycomb structures. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, here we investigate the dumbbell formation mechanisms and energetics of Group IV atoms adsorbed on graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene monolayer honeycomb structures. The stabilities of the binding structures are further confirmed by performing ab-initio molecular dynamics calculations at elevated temperatures, except for stanene which is subject to structural instability upon the adsorption of adatoms. Depending on the row number of the adatoms and substrates we find three types of binding structures, which lead to significant changes in the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of substrates. In particular, Si, Ge and Sn adatoms adsorbed on silicene and germanene form dumbbell structures. Furthermore, dumbbell structures occur not only on single layer, monatomic honeycomb structures, but also on their compounds like SiC and SiGe. We show that the energy barrier to the migration of a dumbbell structure is low due to the concerted action of atoms. This renders dumbbells rather mobile on substrates to construct new single and multilayer Si and Ge phases.

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