Na+/I-symporter and type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase gene expression in amniotic membrane and placenta and its relationship to maternal thyroid hormones
Placental type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) potentially protects the fetus from the elevated maternal thyroid hormones. Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein, which mediates active iodide uptake. Our objectives were to establish the distribution of NIS and D3 gene expressions in the placenta and the amniotic membrane and to investigate the relationship between placental D3 and NIS gene expressions and maternal iodine, selenium, and thyroid hormone status. Thyroid hormones, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and selenium levels were measured in 49 healthy term pregnant women. NIS and D3 gene expressions were studied with the total mRNA RT-PCR method in tissues from maternal placenta (n = 49), fetal placenta (n = 9), and amniotic membrane (n = 9). NIS and D3 gene expressions were shown in the fetal and maternal sides of the placenta and amniotic membrane. Mean blood selenium level was 66 ± 26.5 μg/l, and median UIC was 143 μg/l. We could not demonstrate any statistically significant relationship of spot UIC and blood selenium with NIS and D3 expression (p > 0.05). Positive correlations were found between NIS and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) (r = 0.3, p = 0.042) and between D3 and preoperative glucose levels (r = 0.4, p = 0.006). D3 and NIS genes are expressed in term placenta and amniotic membrane; thus, in addition to placenta, amniotic membrane contributes to regulation of maternofetal iodine and thyroid hormone transmission. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between maternal glucose levels and placental D3 expression and between TBG and placental NIS expression. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.