An outline of contributing vaccine technologies for SARS CoV2 advancing in clinical and preclinical phase-trials
Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV2) is an RNA virus involving 4 structural and 16 non-structural proteins, and exhibiting high transmission potential and fatality. The emergence of this newly encountered beta coronavirus-SARS CoV2 has brought over 2 million people to death, and more than 10 billion people got infected across the globe as yet. Consequently, the global scientific community has contributed to the synthesis and design of effective immunization technologies to combat this virus. Objectives: This literature review was intended to gather an update on published reports of the vaccines advancing in the clinical trial phases or preclinical trials, to summarize the foundations and implications of contributing vaccine candidates inferring their impact in the pandemic repression. In addition, this literature review distinctly facilitates an outline of the overall vaccine effectiveness at current doses. Methods: The reported data in this review was extracted from research articles, review articles and patents published from January 2020 to July 2021, available on Google Scholar, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Research Gate, Science direct, and Free Patent Online Database by using combination of keywords. Moreover, some information is retrieved from native web pages of vaccine manufacturing companies' due to progressing research and unavailability of published research papers. Conclusion: Contributing vaccine technologies include: RNA (Ribonucleic acid) vaccines, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) vaccines, viral vector vaccines, protein-based vaccines, inactivated vaccines, viruses-like particles, protein superglue, and live-attenuated vaccines. Some vaccines are prepared by establishing bacterial and yeast cell lines and as self-assembling adenovirus- derived multimeric protein-based self-assembling nanoparticle (ADDOmer). On May 19, WHO has issued an emergency use sanction of Moderna, Pfizer, Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and Covishield vaccine candidates on account of clinical credibility from experimental data.