Communication: Enhancement of dopant dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peak shifts of Si by surface photovoltage
Binding energies measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are influenced by doping, since electrons are transferred to (p-type) and from (n-type) samples when they are introduced into the spectrometer, or brought into contact with each other (p-n junction). We show that the barely measurable Si2p binding energy difference between moderately doped n- and p-Si samples can be enhanced by photoillumination, due to reduction in surface band-bending, which otherwise screens this difference. Similar effects are also measured for samples containing oxide layers, since the band-bending at the buried oxide-Si interfaces is manifest as photovoltage shifts, although XPS does not probe the interface directly. The corresponding shift for the oxide layer of the p-Si is almost twice that of without the oxide, whereas no measurable shifts are observable for the oxide of the n-Si. These results are all related to band-bending effects and are vital in design and performance of photovoltaics and other related systems.