Item Open AccessA comparability and classification analysis of computerized adaptive and conventional paper- based versions of an English language proficiency reading subtest(Bilkent University, 2022-01) Kaya, Elif; Kalender, İlkerThe current study compares the computerized adaptive test (CAT) and paper-based test (PBT) versions of an English language proficiency reading subtest in terms of psychometric qualities. The study also investigates classification performance of CATs not designed for classification purposes with reference to its PBT version. Real data-based simulations were conducted under varying test conditions. The results demonstrate that ability levels estimated by CATs and PBT are similar. A relatively larger item reduction can be obtained with 0.50 and 0.40 standard error thresholds and CATs terminated with 20, 25, and 30 items performed well with acceptable SE values. Reliability of CAT ability estimates was comparable and highly correlated with PBT estimates. For classification analysis, classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) was also estimated using the Rudner method. Classification analyses were conducted on single and multiple cut-off points. The results showed that the use of a single cut-off score produced better classification performance, particularly for high and low ability groups. On the other hand, the use of multiple cut-off scores simultaneously yielded significantly lower classification performance. Overall, the results highlight the potential for CATs not designed specifically for classification to serve classification purposes and indicate avenues for further research. Item Open AccessChanges in teachers’ personal epistemology on a formal in-service training course(Bilkent University, 2021-06) Atlı, Hilal Handan; O’Dwyer, JohnTeachers’ personal epistemological beliefs, formed from earlier experiences, are credited with influencing classroom teaching, although the extent of the relationship between beliefs and practice is debated. This longitudinal study researches the epistemological beliefs of four novice English language teachers during a year-long in-service course, and six months beyond. The analytical framework adopts an interpretative approach within a case-study to explore informants’ beliefs about knowledge, teaching and learning, and professional learning. Beliefs, determined through hermeneutic dialogue, are compared to practice determined empirically through classroom observation. Using Schommer’s 1990 theoretical framework beliefs are categorized under five factors and twelve subsets, distinguishing complex from naïve beliefs, with complex beliefs reflecting constructivist practice targeted on the course. Nine pathways reveal distinct patterns of change in implicit, professed, and enacted epistemological beliefs in relation to classroom practice during the study. The level of sophistication of epistemological beliefs played a major role in whether targeted practices were assimilated easily into classroom practice, or accommodated more slowly, and whether they were sustained beyond the in-service course. Exploring situated cognition within the workplace, part of the analytical framework, showed that some gains made through in-service learning were reversed in response to contextual factors. Results evidence a connection between epistemological beliefs and classroom enactment, with the implication that understanding and following teachers’ epistemological beliefs can enhance in-service teacher education outcomes. The findings suggest that in-service teacher educators and workplace leaders develop common policies to strengthen and sustain gains in professional learning and targeted classroom practice. Item Open AccessEnglish learners’ motivation in higher education programs: instructional and personal correlates(Bilkent University, 2021-01) Aydın, Görkem; Michou, AikateriniThis study investigated the motivational factors linked with English language learning motivation in higher education. A systematic review (Study 1) aimed to clarify the complexity of conceptualization and operationalization of motivational concepts in L2 learning in the literature of the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program and English Preparatory Program (EPP) contexts, and their relation to educational correlates. A prospective study (Study 2) investigated the relation of students’ motivational experience at the beginning (T1) of an eight-week course in EPPs to their academic buoyancy at the end of the course (T2) and achievement in the final exam (T3). In-depth systematic review (Study 1) of 30 articles showed that only 16 articles defined motivation clearly and consistently with a motivational theory, that there was consistency between definitions and measures of motivation in only 17 articles and that there were weaknesses in the methodology of the reviewed studies. Study 2, with 267 students revealed through SEM that students’ T1 need frustration predicted negatively T1 autonomous and positively T1 controlled motivation, which, in turn, predicted positively and negatively, respectively, T2 academic buoyancy. T1 need satisfaction related positively to T2 academic buoyancy. Finally, T2 academic buoyancy mediated the relation between students’ need satisfaction and final achievement while controlled motivation was also negatively related to final achievement. The results of both studies were discussed in terms of improvements of instruction and curriculum changes in EAP programs and EPPs. Item Open AccessStudy efforts, learning strategies and test anxiety when striving for language competence: the role of utility value, self-efficacy, and reasons for learning English(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Üner, Ayça; Kalender, İlkerThis study investigates the combined role of utility value, expectancy for success, intrinsic reasons and self-worth concerns, in predicting learning strategies and test anxiety. The study examined this potential prediction with 1,009 university students. The students were studying in a language preparatory program of a university. In the qualitative phase of this exploratory sequential mixed methods case study, semistructured interviews faciliated understanding of students’ perception of the motivational variables they believe are influential in their language learning process. Interviews were held with students from three different categories: non-repeaters (i.e., those who never failed), past-repeaters (i.e., those who had experienced failure), and current-repeaters (i.e., those who failed and were repeating the current period of study). Quantitative data were gathered through a survey approach and enabled exploration of the relationship among motivational components and learning strategies. Five hierarchical regression analyses was conducted. The regression analysis was conducted for effort regulation, learning strategies (i.e., rehearsal, critical thinking and metacognitive self-regulation) and test anxiety. The results of the regression analyses showed that, intrinsic reasons positively predicted learning strategies across the three groups of students. Self-worth concerns were found to positively predict test anxiety. The results of the study suggest that intrinsic reasons for have an important role in contexts where there is psychological pressure to be successful. Item Open AccessA case-based approach to reflective practice of pre-service secondary mathematics teachers for developing a holistic perception of teaching(Bilkent University, 2020-02) Keskin, Özge; Ayas, AlipaşaThe aim of this study is to support learning to teach processes of preservice secondary mathematics teachers by providing them reflective practice opportunities using a case-based approach. The research was conducted in two stages: design and development of a case-based discussion module and implementation. In the first stage, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten teachers in order to ascertain the perceptions on early career challenges of secondary mathematics teachers who graduated from a MA program with a teaching certificate. It was determined that mathematics teachers experienced challenges related to different dimensions of teaching mathematics, and these challenges were associated with their beliefs, perceptions, and expectations before starting their careers. The findings indicate the need for providing preservice teachers with opportunities to reflect on challenges they may encounter, consider how different aspects of teaching interact, and elaborate on various reasons and possible solutions for those challenges. Aligned with the need, case-based pedagogy and productive reflection constituted the theoretical framework as two important elements. Within this framework, a casebased discussion module (CBDM) was developed. In the second stage, CBDM was implemented with eight preservice secondary mathematics teachers enrolled in the same program. The data collected was analyzed within a multi-dimensional analytical framework. The findings reveal that the CBDM provided a platform to discuss several aspects of teaching as well as to link these aspects and connect their reflections to their personal experiences and theory. Participants perceived this experience as a relevant, engaging, and awareness-increasing practice with potential positive reflections on their teaching. Item Open AccessPerceptions of practices and partnerships in museum education: a case study(Bilkent University, 2019-10) Çadallı, Aysun; Lane, Jennie FarberThe current study describes how case study methodology, using a phenomenographic research approach, gained insights into the perceptions of teachers and museum staff about museum education and field trips. The case involved one private middle school in Ankara, Turkey and its local museums. The primary source of data for this study was interviews conducted with museum staff and teachers. The data from the teacher interviews were supplemented with a questionnaire. Most museums in Ankara were visited and seven staff members were conveniently selected for interviews based on their work with schools and their availability. All 31 teachers in the case study school participated. During the museum interviews, one institution offered to provide an orientation session for participant teachers. Nearly all the case study teachers participated in the session and they shared their perceptions about it via a questionnaire and during follow up interview questions. It became clear during the literature review and data analysis that for museums and schools to work together for student learning it is important they be partners. Therefore, this study used an analytical framework to explore the level of partnership between the case study school and its local museums. The findings reveal that there is weak level of cooperation between the institutions which can be improved with communication and better definition of roles, and it is best to identify a school staff member who serves as a liaison between the school and the museums, ensuring consistent communication and sharing of ideas. Item Open AccessForms of support for and challenges to fostering international-mindedness: perspectives about the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program from different school contexts(Bilkent University, 2018-06) Metli, Akın; Lane, Jennie FarberThis study investigates students’, teachers’ and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program coordinators’ perceptions of forms of support for and challenges to international-mindedness. It specifically investigates how the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program core components: Creativity, Activity, Service, Theory of Knowledge, and Extended Essay foster the pillars of international-mindedness (multilingualism, intercultural understanding and global engagement). The research used mixed methods to explore perceptions of international-mindedness within three schools in Istanbul, Turkey. The qualitative phase used semi-structured interviews, focus groups, lesson observations, and document review. The quantitative phase applied a pre and post-test design to measure intercultural understanding and the global engagement. The quantitative portion of the study compared data from schools with a Turkish (national) student body to a school that had more international staff and students and found no significant difference between and among students’ pre and post levels of intercultural understanding and global engagement in terms of improvement after one year of International Baccalaureate Diploma Program education. The study identified ways intercultural understanding and global engagement are fostered as well as various factors that undermined the implementation of international-mindedness. Regarding the three pillars of international-mindedness, the study revealed examples of the core components (especially about global knowledge, intercultural issues and community service) work to foster intercultural understanding and global engagement. The role of multilingualism and its relation to the other pillars was less clear, resulting in a reinterpretation of the international-mindedness conceptual framework used to guide the study. The revised framework illustrates that intercultural competence and global engagement should be the main components, supported by knowledge, skills, dispositions, and agency related to international-mindedness. Other researchers and educators can use this framework and associated methods to examine how international mindedness is implemented in different schools and to develop strategies to support global citizenship pedagogy in other regions of the world. Item RestrictedStudent perceptions of successful preparation for IBDP: implications for developing 21st century skills(Bilkent University, 2018-05) Dulun, Öykü; Lane, Jennie FarberThis dissertation used comparative case study methodology to investigate student perceptions of how they were prepared for the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. The study focused on students in grades 9 and 10 from three different cases. One case involved students who were prepared through the Turkish national curriculum, a second through the International General Certificate of Secondary Education and the third with the International Baccalaureate Organisation’s Middle Years Programme. Questionnaires and focus group interviews were used to gain student insights about how each approach developed their learning strategies and affected their dispositions. Students were also asked about their critical thinking skills. Further understanding of students’ critical thinking skills was learned by examining samples of their work. These particular attributes were investigated because of their relevance to 21st century skills that are needed for a sustainable future. The study revealed that students from all three cases had positive perceptions of their learning experiences in grades 9 and 10. They especially credited their language classes with providing them opportunities to think independently and creatively. Students emphasized the importance of developing their communication skills in addition to critical thinking. Students from the national programme and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education indicated they felt more confident preparing for exams. The International Baccalaureate Organisation’s Middle Years Programme provided students with more opportunities for research and to think independently. Implications for improving preparation for the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme are provided based on students’ insights. In addition to preparing students for a rigorous upper high school programme, developing 21st century skills, such as critical thinking and communication, will better ensure they will be able to contribute to a sustainable future. Item Open AccessTeachers’ dispositions as habits of mind : insights from a narrative inquiry into the significant life experiences of Turkish teachers(Bilkent University, 2017-06) Altan, Servet; Lane, Jennie FarberThis study investigates the role of significant life experiences that potentially contributed to development of five Turkish teachers’ dispositions as Habits of Mind. The study also further investigates the influences of selected significant life experiences (travelling, reading, professional development, spending time in nature, having hobbies) identified by the participants on their teaching practices. Narrative inquiry was used as the methodology to prompt participants’ recall of their significant life experiences through three in-depth interviews with each informant that took place over the course of a year. The gathered narrative data was first analysed to determine the significant life experiences and to identify emerging categories and themes. The analysis of participants’ significant life experiences resulted in two categories: learning environments and personal attributes. The experiences related to learning environments included the themes of family environment, school environment, and neighbourhood, while the experiences related to personal attributes were travelling, reading, professional development, spending time in nature, and hobbies. In an effort to relate these categories and their themes to dispositions as Habits of Mind, the researcher developed a conceptual framework. The framework was established through a deductive content analysis of literature, using intelligent behaviours to find relations between Habits of Mind and established educational theories. The framework also served to provide theoretical groundings to the model of Habits of Mind. The results of narrative data analysis using the conceptual framework revealed that all participants consider their experiences related to family environment, travelling, reading, professional development, spending time in nature, and having hobbies as the most significant life experiences, which contributed to development of their Habits of Mind. The findings also indicated that these life experiences potentially contributed to participants’ dispositions as Habits of Mind and teaching practices in a positive manner. Based on the findings of the study the researcher suggest travelling, reading, professional development, spending time in nature, and having hobbies be emulated in teacher education programs in order to help pre-service teachers develop effective teaching dispositions and teaching practices. The conceptual framework can be used to elevate understanding of dispositions in teacher education and teacher educators can use the conceptual framework for monitoring and assisting pre-service teachers to develop effective dispositions as Habits of Mind. Item Open AccessThe effectiveness of a program designed to prevent problematic internet use among sixth graders(Bilkent University, 2017-05) Ataşalar, Jale; Michou, AikateriniThis research investigates the relationship of non-risk Turkish early adolescent urban middle school students’ need satisfaction, coping, mindfulness and awareness of consequences of online behaviours with problematic Internet use (PIU), and the effectiveness of a small scale preventive program on PIU in two studies. Study 1 examined the extent to which coping strategies in stressful situations and mindfulness during online engagement mediates the relationship between need satisfaction in real life and PIU, and the reliability of measures to assess coping, mindfulness, online persona, PIU and need satisfaction. A cross-sectional design and Path analysis on a sample of 165 Turkish early adolescents (Mage = 12.88, SD = .83; 49.1% females) found that need satisfaction was negatively related to PIU via low avoidant coping and high mindfulness in Internet engagement. Study 2 designed, implemented and tested the effectiveness in preventing PIU through a 10-week Mindful and Need-supportive Digital Life Responsibility Program (MiNDLifeResP) based on mindfulness in online engagement, awareness of responsible Internet use, satisfaction of psychological needs, and comprehensive understanding of active coping strategies. A quasi-experimental design collected both quantitative and qualitative data from twenty experimental group students (9 females) and twenty control group students (8 females). In pre-test, post-test and follow up, PIU, responsible Internet use, coping strategies, and psychological needs, plus frequencies and limitations in Internet use, were assessed. Post intervention interviews sought experimental group students’ experience and perceptions of the implemented program. The experimental group and researcher kept diaries during the intervention, and parents reported on their children’s Internet use behaviour in pre- and post-tests. For pre-test, post-test and follow-up descriptive statistics and bi-variate correlations were calculated, along with MANOVA for gender differences. In addition, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and a cross tabulation analysis was used in the main analysis, a one-way repeated measure ANOVA for students’ quantitative diaries, and a paired-sample t-test to compare parents’ reports about their children’s time spent on Internet. An independent sample t-test compared students’ perception of need satisfaction in quantitative diaries. Content analysis was performed on experimental group students’ qualitative interview data, and on the researcher’s reflection diary. The MiNDLifeResP was unsuccessful in increasing RIU and decreasing PIU and avoidant coping for not-at-risk adolescents, but successful in forming positive cognitions for students regarding harmonious Internet use, active coping, and awareness of the present moment. Additionally, the need supportive component was successful for students’ need satisfaction during the intervention. Recommendations to improve the study and implications of the results for education and teaching practices are then discussed. Item Open AccessStudents' performance, skills and perspectives on the combination of national and international curricula for university education in Turkey(Bilkent University, 2016-05) Sagun, Sıla; Sands, Margaret K.This study explores the university preparedness of students who were educated through an international high school education program in Turkey. Within a theoretical framework, which discusses the complexity of the combination of different curricula, the effect of the implementation of an international program in a national program on student outcomes is also investigated. The study compares the academic performance and skills of students who followed the national program (NP) with students who followed both the national program and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (DP). A mixed method research with convergent parallel design was selected to examine the perceptions of students and faculty members, as well as the quantitative data on students‟ numerical scores. The quantitative data including university cGPAs, individual university course grades, university entrance exam scores, four-year graduation rates and international high school program diploma scores were analysed statistically to explore the difference between NP and DP students. The quantitative data on skills were collected by an online questionnaire and critical thinking skills tests. The qualitative data, collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews with students and faculty members, revealed the differences between the two groups of students. In total, the numerical scores of 761 students from four universities in Turkey were used. 72 students participated in the study for qualitative data collection. Five faculty members from various departments were interviewed individually. The results showed that the DP students had higher university cGPAs and higher individual course grades at university. They also had a higher graduation rate after four years at university, it was nearly three times that of the NP group. Focus group discussions and individual interviews further clarified the differences between the academic performance and skills of each group. Overall, the study found that the international high school education program seemed to develop a better student profile for university life. Item Open AccessInternational education curriculum : stakeholder values and perceptions(Bilkent University, 2015) Keller, Daniel John; O’Dwyer, John B.This study, undertaken with a view to increase understanding of international education, investigates the perspectives of international education held by stakeholders of international schools. Within a theoretical framework which distinguished an internationalist agenda from a globalist agenda, the extent to which those stakeholders surveyed valued international education was sought, as well as how well the implementation of education matched their expectations. A mixedmethods sequential explanatory study examined stakeholder values and perceptions, using a cross-sectional survey, and related them to demographic and contextual factors. The survey data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The qualitative phase used three different cross-section methods: survey comments, focus group interviews, and personal interviews, all subjected to thematic and cross-thematic analysis. 483 parent and staff stakeholders of international schools, part of a corporate for-profit network located in the United Arab Emirates, responded to the survey. Results showed that international education was highly valued by the respondents, with significant differences related to the factors of school, primary language, educational attainment, and role in school (staff or parent). Stakeholders perceived international education was implemented less well, with significant differences related to the factors of school, number of international schools experienced, and role in school. Explanations related to results described why stakeholders may hold certain perspectives, why differences exist across certain factor categories, and why some differences focus on only part of the construct of international education.