Item Open AccessStudy protocol: Assessing the association between corporate financial influence and implementation of policies to tackle commercial determinants of non-communicable diseases: A cross-sectional analysis of 172 countries(BMJ Publishing Group, 2022-08-30) Allen, Luke Nelson; Wigley, Simon; Holmer, Hampus; Wigley, SimonIntroduction There are many case studies of corporations that have worked to undermine health policy implementation. It is unclear whether countries that are more exposed to corporate financial influence are systematically less likely to implement robust health policies that target firms' financial interests. We aim to assess the association between corporate financial influence and implementation of WHO-recommended policies to constrain sales, marketing and consumption of tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods. Methods and analysis We will perform a cross-sectional analysis of 172 WHO Member States using national datasets from 2015, 2017 and 2020. We will use random effects generalised least squares regression to test the association between implementation status of 12 WHO-recommended tobacco, alcohol and diet policies, and corporate financial influence, a metric that combines disclosure of campaign donations, public campaign finance, corporate campaign donations, legislature corrupt activities, disclosure by politicians and executive oversight. We will control for GDP per capita, population aged >65 years (%), urbanisation (%), level of democracy, continent, ethno-linguistic fractionalisation, legal origin, UN-defined 'Small Island Developing States' and Muslim population (%) (to capture alcohol policy differences). We will include year dummies to address the possibility of a spurious relationship between the outcome variable and the independent variables of interests. For example, there may be an upward global trend in policy implementation that coincides with an upward global trend in the regulation of lobbying and campaign finance. Ethics and dissemination As this study uses publicly available data, ethics approval is not required. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication in the academic literature. All data, code and syntax will be made publicly available on GitHub. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Item Open AccessPandemic preparedness and COVID-19: an exploratory analysis of infection and fatality rates, and contextual factors associated with preparedness in 177 countries, from Jan 1, 2020, to Sept 30, 2021(The Lancet Publishing Group, 2022-02-01) Bollyky, Thomas J; Hulland, Erin N; Barber, Ryan M; Collins, James K; Kiernan, Samantha; Moses, Mark; Pigott, David M; Reiner Jr, Robert C; Sorensen, Reed J D; Abbafati, Cristiana; Adolph, Christopher; Allorant, Adrien; Amlag, Joanne O; Aravkin, Aleksandr Y; Bang-Jensen, Bree; Carter, Austin; Castellano, Rachel; Castro, Emma; Chakrabarti, Suman; Combs, Emily; Dai, Xiaochen; Dangel, William James; Dapper, Carolyn; Deen, Amanda; Duncan, Bruce B; Earl, Lucas; Erickson, Megan; Ewald, Samuel B; Fedosseeva, Tatiana; Ferrari, Alize J; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fullman, Nancy; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Galal, Bayan; Gallagher, John; Giles, John R; Guo, Gaorui; He, Jiawei; Helak, Monika; Huntley, Bethany M; Idrisov, Bulat; Johanns, Casey; LeGrand, Kate E; Letourneau, Ian D; Lindstrom, Akiaja; Linebarger, Emily; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Magistro, Beatrice; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Månsson, Johan; Herrera, Ana M Mantilla; Marinho, Fatima; Mirkuzie, Alemnesh H; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Naik, Paulami; Nomura, Shuhei; O'Halloran, James Kevin; Odell, Christopher M; Olana, Latera Tesfaye; Ostroff, Samuel M; Pasovic, Maja; Azeredo Passos, Valeria Maria de; Penberthy, Louise; Reinke, Grace; Santomauro, Damian Francesco; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Sholokhov, Aleksei; Spurlock, Emma; Troeger, Christopher E; Varavikova, Elena; Vo, Anh T; Vos, Theo; Walcott, Rebecca; Walker, Ally; Wigley, Simon D; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Worku, Nahom Alemseged; Wu, Yifan; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Zheng, Peng; Hay, Simon I; Murray, Christopher J L; Dieleman, Joseph L Item Open AccessFair infinite lotteries, qualitative probability, and regularity(Cambridge University Press, 2022-02-11) DiBella, Nicholas; DiBella, NicholasA number of philosophers have thought that fair lotteries over countably infinite sets of outcomes are conceptually incoherent by virtue of violating countable additivity. In this article, I show that a qualitative analogue of this argument generalizes to an argument against the conceptual coherence of a much wider class of fair infinite lotteries—including continuous uniform distributions. I argue that this result suggests that fair lotteries over countably infinite sets of outcomes are no more conceptually problematic than continuous uniform distributions. Along the way, I provide a novel argument for a weak qualitative, epistemic version of regularity. Item Open AccessNon-paradigmatic punishments(John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022-03-05) Brown Coverdale, Helen; Wringe, Bill; Wringe, BillThis review article argues for a better acknowledgement by penal philosophers of the diversity of subjects, agents, and practices of punishment. Much current penal philosophy has an unhelpful hyper-focus on the criminal punishment of culpable adults, by states, often through imprisonment. This paradigmatic case is important, but other subjects, agents, and practices of punishment are not statistically insignificant side-issues, and a comprehensive account of punishment should address them. Our understanding of punishment as a whole can be enhanced by considering non-paradigmatic punishment, with implications for whether and when punishment is justified, how we should understand appropriate authority, and how we should understand and engage with abolitionist arguments. We explore non-paradigmatic penal practices (community punishments, suspended prison sentence, restorative justice, and alternative jurisprudence), non-paradigmatic punishing agents (International judicial bodies, schools, and religious communities; with practices such as boycotts, shaming and shunning) and non-paradigmatic subjects of punishment (collective agents, corporations and children). © 2022 The Authors. Philosophy Compass published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Item Open AccessAssessing the association between Corporate Financial Influence and implementation of policies to tackle commercial determinants of non-communicable diseases: A cross-sectional analysis of 172 countries(Elsevier Ltd, 2021-02-22) Allen, Luke N.; Wigley, Simon Drummond; Holmer, Hampus; Wigley, Simon DrummondObjective: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of global death and disability. Tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy foods are major contributing risk factors. WHO Member States have unanimously endorsed a set of 12 policies designed to constrain the sale of these commodities, however, there are myriad case studies of commercial entities seeking to undermine effective legislation in order to protect their profits. We set out to quantify the association between corporate financial influence and implementation of commercial policies. Methods: We generated policy implementation scores for all 194 WHO Member States using data from the 2015, 2017, and 2020 WHO NCD Progress Monitor Reports. We used publicly available data to create a novel Corporate Financial Influence Index (CFII) that quantifies the opportunity for corporations to use their financial resources to directly influence policymaking in each country. We reported policy implementation trends over time and used random effects multivariate regression to test the association between policy implementation and CFII for each country, while controlling for broad set of economic, cultural, historical, geographic, and demographic factors. Findings: Implementation of the 12 WHO-backed commercial policies has risen over time, but remains low at approximately 40%. Progress is reversing for alcohol policies. CFII explains around a fifth of the variance in global implementation. For every 10% rise in CFII, implementation falls by approximately 2% (95%CI 0.90 to 3.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our quantitative global analysis suggests that financial corporate influence is negatively associated with implementation of policies that seek to restrict the marketing, sale, and consumption of unhealthy (but profitable) commodities. In the context of anemic international progress tackling NCDs, greater attention should be paid to managing regulatory opportunities for overt and covert corporate financial influence as a core plank of the global NCD response. © 2022 The Authors Item Open AccessComposition and plethological innocence(Oxford University Press, 2021-11-15) Payton, Jonathan D.; Payton, Jonathan D.According to Composition as Identity (CAI), a whole is distinct from each of its parts individually, but identical to all of them taken together. It is sometimes claimed that, if you accept CAI, then your belief in a whole is ‘ontologically innocent’ with respect to your belief in its parts. This claim is false. But the defender of CAI can claim a different advantage for her view. Following Agustín Rayo, I distinguish ontology (which concerns what there is) from plethology (which concerns what there are). I then show that CAI allows us to introduce an interesting notion of ‘plethological innocence’ which would otherwise collapse into the notion of ‘ontological innocence’, and that CAI renders belief in composite objects plethologically (but not ontologically) innocent. Item Open AccessCocks on Dunghills-Wollstonecraft and gouges on the women's revolution(De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2022-09-26) Bergès, Sandrine; Coffee, Alan; Bergès, SandrineWhile many historians and philosophers have sought to understand the 'failure' of the French Revolution to thrive and to avoid senseless violence, very few have referred to the works of two women philosophers who diagnosed the problems as they were happening. This essay looks at how Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges theorised the new tyranny that grew out of the French Revolution, that of 'petty tyrants' who found themselves like 'cocks on a dunghill' able to wield a new power over those less fortunate than themselves. Both offer diagnoses and prognoses that revolve around education. Wollstonecraft argues that a revolution that is not backed by a previous education of the people is bound to result in chaos and violence. Such education, however, must be slow, and it necessitates the reform of the institutions that most shape the public's character. A revolution, perforce, is fast, and it often takes several years, or even generations before the spirit of the reforms finds itself implemented into new institutions. Olympe de Gouges shares Wollstonecraft's worry and she observes that the men who were once dominated quickly become tyrants themselves unless their moral character is already virtuous. But the state of being dominated leaves little room for virtue; hence, newly minted citizens need to be educated in order not to replicate the reign of tyranny onto other. Gouges suggests that the answer to the difficulty she and Wollstonecraft highlighted was to educate the people where they could be found: on the streets, or, where they could easily and willingly be gathered: in theatres. By helping organise revolutionary festivals, highlighting the ways in which citizens could be virtuous, and writing plays to awaken their virtue, and proposing a reform of the theatre, so that the production of such plays would be possible, Gouges offered a plan for the civic education of French citizens in the immediate aftermaths of the Revolution. Unfortunately, the chaos she and Wollstonecraft had sought to remedy, led by the cocks or petty tyrants, ensured that they were unable to see through their plans, with Wollstonecraft having to leave Paris and Gouges being sent to the guillotine. © 2022 the author(s), published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston. Item Open AccessMandeville on self-liking, morality, and hypocrisy(Routledge, 2022-02-08) Berkovski, Sandy; Berkovski, SandyI explore Mandeville’s account of moral judgement and its implications for the understanding of hypocrisy. According to Mandeville, we have a psychological need to like ourselves sufficiently, so as to carry on with our lives. Because our self-liking necessarily depends on the opinions others form of us, we are extraordinarily sensitive to praise and condemnation. The practice of moral judgement exploits this sensitivity. Hypocrisy is an intrinsic element of this practice. Item Open AccessTrust made the difference for democracies in COVID-19(Elsevier, 2022-08-26) Bollyky, Thomas J.; Angelino, Olivia; Wigley, Simon; Dieleman, Joseph L.; Wigley, Simon Item Open AccessOn what there is in particular(Oxford University Press, 2022-12-17) Payton, Jonathan D; Payton, Jonathan DQuine says that ontology is about what there is, suggesting that to be ontologically committed to Fs is to be committed to accepting a sentence which existentially quantifies over Fs. Kit Fine argues that this gets the logical form of some ontological theses wrong. Fine is right that some ontological theses cannot be rendered simply as ‘There are Fs’. But the root of the problem has yet to be recognized, either by Fine or by his critics. Sometimes to adopt an ontological thesis is not merely to commit yourself to there being at least one F; it is to take a stand on which Fs there are. Once we recognize the ‘particularity’ of these ontological theses, we can adequately express them within the confines of a Quinean approach to ontology and ontological commitment. Item Open AccessSlurs, synonymy, and taboo(Routledge, 2022-01-22) Berkovski, Yehezkel Sandy; Berkovski, Yehezkel SandyThe ‘prohibitionist’ idea that slurs have the same linguistic properties as their neutral counterparts hasn’t received much support in the literature. Here I offer a modified version of prohibitionism, according to which the taboo on using slurs is part of their conventional meaning. I conclude with explanations of the behaviour of slurs in embedded constructions. Item Open AccessSlurs and redundancy(Springer, 2022-09) Berkovski, Y. Sandy; Berkovski, Y. SandyAccording to nearly all theorists writing on the subject, a certain derogatory content is regularly and systematically communicated by slurs. So united, the theorists disagree sharply on the elements of this content, on its provenance, and on its mechanism. I argue that the basic premiss of all these views, that there is any such derogatory content conveyed with the use of slurs, is highly dubious. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. Item Open AccessMoral criticism, hypocrisy, and pragmatics(Springer, 2022-08) Berkovski, Y. Sandy; Berkovski, Y. SandyA good chunk of the recent discussion of hypocrisy concerned the hypocritical “moral address” where, in the simplest case, a person criticises another for ϕ-ing having engaged in ϕ-ing himself, and where the critic’s reasons are overtly moral. The debate has conceptual and normative sides to it. We ask both what hypocrisy is, and why it is wrong. In this paper I focus on the conceptual explication of hypocrisy by examining the pragmatic features of the situation where accusations of hypocrisy are made. After rejecting several extant views, I defend the idea that moral criticisms are best understood as moves in an agonistic or hostile conversation, and that charges of hypocrisy are attempts to prevent the hypocrite from gaining an upper hand in a situation of conflict. I finish by linking this idea to frame-theoretic analysis and evolutionary psychology. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. Item Open AccessFrames and games: Intensionality and equilibrium selection(Springer, 2022-03-24) Aranyosi, István; Aranyosi, IstvánThe paper is an addition to the intensionalist approach to decision theory, with emphasis on game theoretic modelling. Extensionality in games is an a priori requirement that players exhibit the same behavior in all algebraically equivalent games on pain of irrationality. Intensionalism denies that it is always irrational to play differently in differently represented (described, understood) but algebraically equivalent versions of a game. I offer a framework to integrate game non-extensionality with the more familiar idea of linguistic non-extensionality from philosophy of language, followed by applications of it based on toy examples of well-known game models. I argue that the notion of what I call “Intensional Nash Equilibrium” is, in effect, very useful in understanding human decision-making. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. Item Open AccessLogical pantheism(Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2022-05-26) Aranyosi, István; Aranyosi, IstvánLogical Pantheism is a view according to which God could be identified with logical space, that is, with the space of all possible worlds. It differs from classical pantheism in the latter identifies God merely with the actual Universe, or with nature. There are several reasons why Logical Pantheism is considered superior to classical pantheism by its proponents. One such reason is that it helps the traditional ontological (that is, a priori) argument for the existence of God go through unproblematically. Another core reason is that it ensures all greatmaking properties as belonging to God, in virtue of it containing all possible properties. The view was put forward and defended by István Aranyosi (2013) and by Yujin Nagasawa (2016). Item Open AccessPhronêsis and Kalokagathia in Eudemian Ethics VIII.3(Johns Hopkins Univ Press, 2022-01) Wolt, Daniel; Wolt, DanielIn Eudemian Ethics VIII.3, Aristotle treats a virtue that he calls kalokagathia, "nobility-and-goodness." This virtue appears to be quite important, and he even identifies it with "perfect virtue" (EEVIII.3, 1249a17). This makes it puzzling that the Nicomachean Ethics, a text that largely parallels the Eudemian Ethics, does not discuss kalokagathia at all. I argue that the reason for this difference has to do with the role that the intellectual virtue practical wisdom (phronesis) plays in these treatises. The Nicomachean Ethics, I argue, makes use of a more expansive conception of phronesis than does the Eudemian Ethics. Hence, the work that is done by kalokagathia in the Eudemian Ethics-crucially, accounting for the unity of the virtues-is done in the Nicomachean Ethics by phronesis. Item Open AccessDomesticity and political participation: At home with the Jacobin women(SAGE, 2023) Berges, Sandrine; Berges, SandrineThe exclusion of women from political participation and the separation of private and public spheres seem anchored in human history to such an extent that we may think they are necessary. I offer an analysis of a philosophical moment in history, the early years of the French Revolution, where politics and domesticity were not incompatible. I show how this enabled women to participate in politics from within their homes, at the same time fulfilling their duties as wives and mothers. The republican home, on this interpretation, was a place of power and virtue, a merging of the public and the private sphere where political ideals and reforms could be born and nurtured. This conception of the home was derived in great part from a reading of Rousseau’s writings on motherhood. As the influence of French revolutionary women became more visible, they were severely repressed. The fact that they could not hold on to a position of power that derived naturally from the ideals they and others defended, I will suggest, was caused both by the fact that the framework used to allow women political power was insecure, and by the gradual replacement of republican ideals by liberal ones. Item Open AccessConservative treatment of evidence(Cambridge University Press, 2022-09-07) Fatollahi, Alireza; Fatollahi, AlirezaThis paper discusses two conservative ways of treating evidence. (I) Closing inquiry involves discounting evidence bearing on one's belief unless it is particularly strong evidence; (II) biased assimilation involves dedicating more investigative resources to scrutinizing disconfirming evidence (than confirming evidence), thereby increasing the chances of finding reasons to dismiss it. It is natural to worry that these practices lead to irrational biases in favor of one's existing beliefs, and that they make one's epistemic condition significantly path-sensitive by giving a bigger role to batches of evidence obtained earlier in the course of inquiry compared with those subsequently acquired. However, I argue that both practices are demanded by considerations of practical rationality. I also argue that, contrary to initial appearances, there is little reason to worry about the effects of these practices on the dynamics of one's beliefs. Item Open AccessThe psychological impact of COVID‑19 quarantine on children, and the role of parental support and physical environment design(Springer International Publishing AG, 2021-09-28) Aljunaidy, Mais M.; Adi, Mohamad Nadim; Aljunaidy, Mais M.; Adi, Mohamad NadimCoronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious infection that caused a global lockdown and affected children who needed to stay home. There is a lack of knowledge about the role of parental stress and physical environment design on children’s mental wellbeing in quarantine. We hypothesis that COVID-19 quarantine affected child mental health, and that paternal stress or support, and child physical environment including household space, colors, sunlight exposure, and natural views, impacted child mental wellbeing in the quarantine. To assess the effect of quarantine on a child’s mental health, an online survey was administered globally through scientific organizations and social media. Those over 18 years old, and guardians of children were asked to participate in the survey. The survey was filled by 114 guardians from 31 countries. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Most participants experienced stress in the quarantine and reported child anxiety symptoms including focus reduction, sleeping difficulties, and appetite changes. Family fun activities and encouraging words, were mostly successful in reducing child anxiety. Reporting anxiety symptoms in children were more common in parents who had mental hardships compared to those who did not experience mental problems or had an improved mental status. Physical environment assessment showed that households with bright walls associated with fewer reports of child mental problems compared to households with neutral wall colors, and that most guardians thought that their children’s living space was not sufficient to play and study. Architects can provide evidence-based recommendations for customers to support children’s mental health.