Item EmbargoSynthesis of magnetically anisotropic janus particles by droplet-based microfluidics(Bilkent University, 2024-01) Saqib, MuhammadIn the past decade Janus particles have been extensively utilized by the scientific community for potential uses such as cell encapsulation and assembly, DNA assays, biological multiplexing , targeted drug delivery, noninvasive imaging, theranostics, microlenses, reflection-mode displays, removal of organic and metal pollutants and water decontamination. Due to their multi functional characteristics, stemming from their anisotropy, they are superior to conventional monophase particles. Even though there are several established synthesis methods for Janus particles, microfluidics-based methods are by far the most convenient and reliable due to low reagent consumption, monodispersity of the resultant particles and efficient control over reaction conditions. Droplet-based microfluidics is the most popular technique for the reliable synthesis of Janus particles and even though it has been extensively explored there are many aspects of the conventional droplet-based microfluidics techniques that either result in poor anisotropy of the synthesized particles or involve off-chip processing. In this work a simple and novel droplet-based microfluidic technique is utilized to synthesize magnetically anisotropic Janus particles. Using this method magnetically anisotropic Janus particles are synthesized by using droplets as templates. The droplets contain magnetic nanoparticles and are exposed to ultraviolet radiation while passing through a magnetic field. The magnetic field renders the droplet anisotropic by attracting the magnetic nanoparticles to one hemisphere while at the same time the ultrviolet exposure initiates polymerization of the prepolymer phase. The microfluidic device was optimized by using numerical simulations and experimental observations. The magnetic flux density was optimized by using a magnetic flux density map. The synthesized particles were imaged under an optical microscope to observe their size distribution and scanning electron microscope to confirm complete polymerization and the magnetic anisotropy was confirmed by observing the motion of the particle in the presence of an external magnetic field. The synthesized particles were observed to be monodisperse and exhibited rotation about their own axis which is characteristic of magnetically anisotropic particles. Further another design was developed to merge droplets from two dispersed phase streams in a Janus orientation by optimizing the angle of merging. With this device the merged droplet was observed to contain the constituents of its two hemispheres distinct from each other. Using this device TiO2-Fe2O3 and SiO2- Fe2O3 magnetically anisotropic Janus particles were synthesized. The synthesized Janus particles were observed under the optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Moreover the magnetic response of the Janus particles was also observed using a permanent magnet. These types of Janus particles could be potentially used as micromotors for microcargo transport because of their magnetic properties or for DNA assay applications. Item EmbargoModeling lubricants enhanced by finite elasticity polymers(Bilkent University, 2023-12) Ahmed, HumayunLubrication is essential for the longevity of mechanical and biological surfaces in relative motion and susceptible to friction and wear. A well designed lubricant, for example a base oil enhanced with polymer additives, can effectively reduce both energetic and material losses. However, difficulty arises when modeling these lubricant mixtures exhibiting complex rheological behavior, in particular, a dependence of the viscosity on pressure (piezoviscosity), temperature (thermal thinning), shear rate (shear thinning) and the onset of viscoelasticity. Accurate estimates of the load carrying capacity of the thin lubricating film requires careful modeling of shear thinning. Available models such as the generalized Reynolds equation (GR) and the approximate shear distribution (ASD) have drawbacks such as large computational time and poor accuracy, respectively. In this work, we present a new approach, i.e. the modified viscosity (MV) model. We investigate, for both MV and GR, the load, the maximum pressure and the computational time, for (i) sliding (non-cavitating) contacts, (ii) cavitating and (iii) squeezing contacts. We observe that the computational time is reduced (i) considerably for non-cavitating sliding and rolling contacts and (ii) by several order of magnitudes for cavitating and squeezing contacts. For strongly elastic lubricants, the viscoelastic Reynolds (VR) approach (Ahmed & Biancofiore, Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 292, 104524, 2021.) has been shown to be effective in modeling (i) the pressure distribution and (ii) the load carrying capacity of a viscoelastic lubricating film for mechanical contacts for the Oldroyd-B constitutive relation. In this work, we have extended the VR approach to the non-linear finitely extensible non-linear elastic (FENE) type constitutive relations that account for the (i) finite extension of the polymer chains and (ii) shear thinning. We have validated the VR approach against DNS, showing an excellent agreement over a wide range of the Weissenberg number W i, i.e. the ratio between the polymer relaxation time and the flow time scale, and finite extensibility parameter L, using FENE-CR and FENE-P. Following a thorough validation, the pressure distribution and the load carrying capacity of a journal bearing, whose channel height is governed by the journal eccentricity ratio e, is considered. It is observed that the load carrying capacity of the film portrays a strongly non-linear dependence on W i, L and e: while it increases for small values of W i, limited greatly by the capacity of the polymer to stretch, a saturation and a subsequent decline is observed for highly viscoelastic regimes. Additionally, a weakly (strongly) eccentric configuration plays an important role in promoting (hindering) the growth in load versus both W i and L. These effects are significant and have to be considered when modeling thin contacts lubricated with a strongly viscoelastic fluid. Additionally, we have extended the VR approach towards three-dimensional lubricated contacts (in cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems) for several non-linear constitutive relations and have provided a linearized model in De. Owing to the increase in computational requirements, a globally fully-implicit numerical technique was adopted for the efficient solution of the equations. The load and friction response for an extruded journal bearing e = 0.9 (and parabolic slider) showed a strong variation versus the channel aspect ratio (otherwise zero for a Newtonian lubricant), i.e. a = ℓx/ℓz, the ratio between the channel streamwise and spanwise lengths. The effects of transient surface motion on the response of an elastic polymer have also been examined, with a specific focus on the load carrying capacity and the friction, via a second-order perturbation model and the VR approach. We find, the perturbed models only offer a matching prediction (i) once the motion has proceeded from some time and, (ii) the De is small. A simplified look into the influence of polymer elasticity on the temperature distribution of the film showed a weak dependency versus De. The film heating owing to the fluid dissipation remained largely unaffected unless the De was large. Item EmbargoNanomechanical and microwave resonance sensing for characterization of individual virions and nanoparticles in atmospheric conditions(Bilkent University, 2023-09) Alkhaled, MohammedThis dissertation focuses on Nanoelectromechanical-based Mass Spectrometry (NEMS-MS), an innovative technique for characterizing nanoparticles and biomolecules weighing above the working limit of commercial mass spectrometry tools. It suggests performing NEMS-MS under atmospheric conditions and enhancing its capabilities with a built-in focusing lens. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the study addresses urgent virus detection needs, proposing a label-free method using NEMS-MS for individual virus detection and characterization. Notably, the study achieves mass spectrometry measurement of the SARS-CoV-2 virus using a NEMS-MS system operating entirely under atmospheric pressure. As the first to pioneer NEMS-MS in air, the study examines challenges tied to this, particularly how NEMS response in dissipative environments, known as Mode Shape Attenuation. Mathematical models and experiments dissect factors contributing to this attenuation, resulting in improved mass spectra and contributing toward the utilization of NEMS-MS for real-world application. Taking innovation a step further, the study introduces a microwave-based sensor for inferring electrical properties of nanoparticles. This sensor works in the electro-magnetic domain, determining properties like dielectric constant and expanding the sensing possibilities. Overall, this dissertation propels NEMS-based sensing and characterization by combining mass spectrometry, microwave sensing, and atmospheric pressure operation. Addressing challenges and introducing innovative solutions, it advances NEMS-MS technology and offers a cost-effective tool for characterizing nanoparticles and biomolecules across various applications. Item Open AccessAdaptive control of cyberphysical human systems(Bilkent University, 2021-08) Tohidi, Seyed ShahabaldinThis dissertation focuses on the control of cyberphysical human systems in the presence of actuators’ redundancy and constraints. A novel adaptive control tech-nique is proposed to allocate control signals among redundant actuators in the presence of uncertainty and actuator saturation. The proposed method does not require any uncertainty identiﬁcation or persistency of excitation assumption. The stability of the proposed method is guaranteed using Lyapunov stability analysis. In addition, a modiﬁed projection operator that can be implemented to the adaptive control allocation is proposed. This operator enables the allo-cator to handle both magnitude and rate limits of actuators. A novel sliding mode controller with time-varying sliding surface is designed to complement the adaptive allocator and guarantee stability and reference tracking in the presence of uncertainty and actuator saturation. This controller is robust to both adap-tive control allocation error and external disturbance. Furthermore, an adaptive human model is proposed to mimic the human control response in the presence of uncertainty. The proposed structure is based on the model reference adaptive control, and the adaptive laws are obtained using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stabil-ity criteria. To validate this model, an experimental setup is employed to collect data and a statistical analysis is conducted to measure the predictive power of the pilot model. Finally, the stability limits of a human-in-the-loop closed loop control system, where the plant to be controlled has redundant actuators with uncertain dynamics, are demonstrated. Various human models with and without time delays are investigated. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the eﬀectiveness of the proposed methods in each chapter. Item Open AccessDesign and fabrication of micro end mills for the machining of difficult-to-cut materials(Bilkent University, 2016-08) Oliaei, Samad Nadimi BavilMicromilling is a cost-e ective method of fabricating miniaturized components with complex, three-dimensional features made from di cult-to-cut materials. Microcutting tools are exposed to harsh conditions during machining of such materials, which leads to short tool life and thus a ects the economics of the process. The aim of this thesis is to develop a systematic approach to the design and fabrication of high-precision micro-cutting tools. Machining characteristics of three di erent di cult-to-cut materials–stainless steel, titanium alloy, and silicon–have been investigated using experimental techniques. The results reveal the importance of interaction between tool micro geometry and work material mechanical properties. This observation leads to the development of tailored micro-end mills which are designed and fabricated based on the requirements of the specific machining task. This study also examines in detail built-up edge, an important but usually overlooked issue in micromachining of ductile materials, which a ects the process forces, tool wear, and tool deflections. The protective e ect of built-up edge has been exploited by creating micro-dimples on the tool surface using electrical discharge machining. Its positive influence on tool performance has been demonstrated. As for the micromachining of silicon, the flow of cut material around the cutting edge is paramount in tool design. A novel tool design for machining of silicon has been proposed and its e ectiveness has been validated through experiments. It has been shown that the selection of proper process parameters together with tailored tool design may increase the productivity of micromachining and improve surface quality and dimensional accuracy of micro-scale parts.