Item Open AccessThe relationship among self-assessed oral competencies, teaching styles and teaching approaches of non-native EFL teachers at a state university in Türkiye(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Özcan, Fatma; Akşit, TijenThis case study investigated self-assessed oral competencies including oral comprehension, oral production, and oral interaction, teaching styles, and approaches in terms of student and teacher-centeredness of non-native EFL teachers at a state university in Türkiye. It also explored the possible relationships between their self-assessed oral competencies and teaching styles and teaching approaches. Data from the questionnaire responded by 90 teachers and interviews with 11 participating teachers were analyzed. The results revealed that these teachers assessed oral competencies are high, they prefer Personal Model, Facilitator and Expert teaching styles and that their approach to teaching is the Conceptual Change Student-Focused (CCSF). It was also found that teachers’ self-assessed oral competency is affected by factors like the area of their BA degrees and whether they speak other languages. Age and years of teaching experience have been identified as the factors which have an impact on their preferred teaching styles and approaches. Finally, oral interaction has been found to have a weak relationship with almost all the teaching styles and the teacher-centered approach, and a moderate relationship with CCSF. Moreover, Personal Model and CCSF showed weak to moderate relationships with all the oral competency areas. Item Open AccessAn investigation of the 21st century competencies of prospective EFL teachers in Türkiye(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Mirici, Ilgın; Akşit, TijenThis study investigated the competencies on 21st century skills of prospective EFL teachers in Türkiye and ELT department academics’ opinions about their students’ 21st century skills competencies. In this respect, it explored the opinions of the 3rd and 4th grade prospective EFL teachers studying at a state and a foundation university in Ankara, Turkey. To this end, 102 prospective EFL teachers and 14 ELT department academics filled in a questionnaire to take part in the study. Quantitative data was obtained from the questionnaires, and qualitative data was obtained via semi-structured interviews with a sample of 15 prospective EFL teachers and 11 ELT department academics. The results of the study have revealed that both state and foundation university prospective EFL teachers feel competent in using 21st century skills in their classes, with a focus on a range of skills including communication, collaboration, and the use of technology. Likewise, ELT department academics perceive their students' competencies in using the 21st century skills such as communication and technology use, with some slight differences in specific areas. Item Open AccessEFL instructors’ perceptions and practices of differentiated instruction at tertiary level(Bilkent University, 2023-07) Horkel, Berrin Karasaç; Akşit, TijenThe purpose of this study was to investigate EFL instructors’ perceptions and practices of differentiated instruction in an English language preparatory program of a state university in Türkiye. For this mixed-methods case study, the quantitative data was collected through a questionnaire, and the qualitative data was gathered through semi-structured interviews. 87 instructors participated in the quantitative part of the study, and 13 instructors participated in the qualitative phase. Descriptive and inferential analysis was employed to analyze the quantitative data, and the qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. The results indicated that instructors’ awareness of differentiated instruction is generally high, and that they are generally aware of individual differences and needs and their impact on the course achievement. On the other hand, the results of the study also showed that instructors’ practices of differentiated instruction are generally not comprehensive and are not proactively based on individual student needs. However, instructors moderately practice differentiation in some parts of their instruction. The results of the study also revealed some challenges instructors face in the differentiation practice including strict syllabus, number of students, insufficient resources and exams. Item Open AccessTertiary level Turkish EFL teachers’ perceptions and experiences about self-initiated professional development(Bilkent University, 2023-07) Hamamcıoğlu, Tuğçe; Akşit, TijenThis study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of tertiary level Turkish ELF teachers regarding self-initiated professional development, and to find out if their perceptions differed according to their demographics. For this mixed-methods study, the quantitative data was collected from 67 Turkish EFL teachers through surveys, and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 14 of them. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data, and for the analysis of the qualitative data, content analysis was used. The results showed that teachers valued collaboration greatly and thought professional development should be context-specific, address their needs, provide practical information and help them be up-to-date. They also asserted teachers should have more autonomy about their own professional development and receive financial, attitudinal, and time-related support from their institutions. The results also indicated that teachers having an undergraduate or graduate degree in teaching English as a foreign language put greater emphasis on the duration of professional development compared to the teachers who graduated from a non-TEFL program, did not have a master’s degree or had a master’s degree in a non-TEFL program. Moreover, sharing experiences and problems with colleagues was the most experienced professional development activity by the participants, whereas attending article discussion club sessions was the least experienced one. Moreover, teachers found attending certificate/diploma programs to gain teaching qualifications the most beneficial, but preparing portfolios was found to be the least useful professional development activity for them. Item Open AccessThe role of teacher feedback in improving tertiary level EFL learners’ writing ability(Bilkent University, 2022-09) Köksal, Selma; Akşit, TijenThe aim of this case study was to explore the main stakeholders' perceptions regarding the role of teacher feedback on improving EFL students’ writing ability and investigate the potential commonalities and/or discrepancies among these main stakeholders' perceptions in an English language preparatory program of a university in Turkey. For this mixed-methods study, the quantitative data were collected from 62 instructors and 497 students via a survey. To gather qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 instructors and 11 students. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics, and content analysis was used for the analysis of the qualitative data which came from open-ended question responses of the survey and one-to-one interviews. The findings of the study indicated some similarities and differences between instructors’ and students’ perceptions. Both instructors and the students thought demotivation is a significant factor in feedback. Instructors believe they give equal importance to grammar and meaning during their feedback. On the other hand, students reported that they mostly experienced grammar focused feedback although they expect more focus on meaning when they are provided with written feedback. Item Open AccessInvestigating tasks in the EFL textbooks in the Turkish Anatolian high school context(Bilkent University, 2022-09) Demirkaya, Öznur; Akşit, NecmiThis study was an attempt to investigate tasks in four English as a Foreign Language (EFL) textbooks designed by the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and studied in the Anatolian high schools in Turkey in the 2020-2021 education year. Specifically, the study sought to identify task characteristics the activities possess, determine task types, and explore task complexity dimensions in the selected textbooks. The study also aimed to compare and contrast the grade levels with one another regarding these issues. In line with the research purposes, three checklists were generated, drawing from relevant frameworks for task characteristics (Ellis, 2011; Ellis & Shintani, 2014), task types (Ellis, 2003, 2011) and task complexity dimensions (Robinson, 2001a, 2001b, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2015; Skehan & Foster, 2001). Then, the activities in the textbooks were analysed through content analysis. The results demonstrated that only a small part of the activities in the textbooks qualify for a task, most of them failing to satisfy the “gap” and “outcome” criteria of taskness as defined by Ellis (2009, p. 223) and Ellis and Shintani (2014, p. 135). The findings related to the task types revealed that the sequencing of the task types across the grade levels, and therefore, proficiency levels, is not in line with the recommendations by Ellis (2020). Similarly, no systematic progression from simple to complex tasks as prescribed in the SSARC model by Robinson (2015) was detected within the textbooks. Implications of the study can be considered for practice and further research on task-based language teaching. Item Open AccessChallenges experienced by tertiary level EFL instructors and students during Covid-19 pandemic(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Deniz, Ayça Damla; Akşit, TijenThe aim of this case study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of EFL instructors and students of an English language preparatory program of a foundation university in Turkey regarding the challenges they faced due to the Covid-19 pandemic-induced online education and the solutions they produced to cope with these challenges. For this mixed-methods case study, the quantitative data were collected from 60 instructors and 110 students through instructor and student questionnaires. To gather the qualitative data, focus group interviews were conducted with 12 instructors and individual interviews with 14 students. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential analysis, and content analysis was used for the analysis of the qualitative data. The results revealed that the main difficulties for the participants were a lack of training for online education and internet connection problems. The instructors thought their workload was increased as they had to provide extra guidance to the students. For the students, distractions at home and lack of interaction with their peers were the main challenges. The instructors also had positive experiences about acquiring more competence in teaching online, and the students were satisfied with the support and guidance they received from the instructors. Item Open AccessEFL teachers’ perceptions of bichronous online teaching(Bilkent University, 2022-03) Uzun, Deniz; Akşit, TijenThe aim of this study was to explore English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors’ perceptions about bichronous online teaching and to examine if the perceptions change according to their age, academic qualification, professional qualification, years of experience in the profession, and perceived competence in the use of educational technologies. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted with 141 English preparatory school instructors of a public university in Ankara, Turkey. The items related to teachers’ perceptions of bichronous online teaching were adapted from Venkatesh et al. (2003) for the online questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed that age, academic qualifications, professional qualifications, years of experience in the profession, and perceived competence in the use of educational technologies seemed to have affected the perceptions of some groups of EFL instructors on bichronous teaching, even though most of them were in favor of bichronous online teaching with the constructs in the “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model” (Venkatesh et al., 2003). The findings also indicated that there is a need for encouraging the instructors to get further training and qualifications, and having a support system and an online community. The instructors should also be motivated so as not to feel intimidated and forced. Furthermore, there should also be rationale justification and clarification as to why and how to use bichronous online teaching. Item Open AccessThe perceptions of university students, language instructors and content professors on academic speaking needs of students at EMI universities in Turkey(Bilkent University, 2021-09) Tunç, Hilal; Akşit, TijenThis study investigated the perceptions of the main stakeholders on the academic speaking needs of students who study at 25 EMI universities in various departments in Turkey. In this regard, it explored to what extent the current approach applied to teach speaking in English in these universities meet the needs of students studying at various departments. To this end, 101 university students, 62 English language instructors, and 31content professors of varying disciplines filled in a questionnaire to take part in the study. The quantitative data were derived through the questionnaires and further data were collected via semi-structured interviews with volunteered participants consisting of eight students, 12 language instructors and three content professors. The results of the study reveal that there is a mismatch between the current approach applied at universities to teach students academic speaking skills and the academic speaking skills that students need in their departments. Some discrepancies among stakeholders were also identified. Item Open AccessStakeholder perceptions on an institutional classroom observation system in an English language preparatory program of a foundation university in Turkey(Bilkent University, 2021-03) Arslan, Zeynep; Akşit, TijenThis case study investigated the perceptions of the main stakeholders on an institutional classroom observation system in the English language preparatory program of a foundation university in Ankara. In this regard, it explored how the stakeholders perceive the relationship between the institutional classroom observation system and English as a foreign language teachers’ professional development in terms of teaching quality and teacher reflectivity. To this end, 44 EFL instructors, eight classroom observers, and three administrators took part in the study. The data were derived through a questionnaire with open-ended questions, semi-structured interviews, and the document regarding the system was utilized as another data source. The results of the content analysis revealed that each stakeholder group has their own perception on the observation system, and its relation to teaching quality and teacher reflectivity. Item Open AccessPeer- relatedness in elementary EFL classes: its relation to student motivation and academic engagement(Bilkent University, 2020-12) Vaezi, Kimiya; Michou, AikateriniThis study investigated first and second grade students’ peer-relatedness, quality of L2 motivation, and their agentic and behavioral engagement in Turkish EFL classrooms. Students’ sense of relatedness was measured through the Relatedness to Social Partner Questionnaire (Furrer & Skinner, 2003), which was presented orally to students. Students’ quality of motivation was assessed with a Thematic Apperception Test-Like (TAT-Like) projective measure (Katz, Assor, & Kanat-Maymon, 2008) in one on one interviews with students. Their agentic and behavioral engagement were measured through a short survey adapted from the Behavioral Engagement Questionnaire (Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1990), which was filled by EFL teachers. Therefore, a mixed method and corss-informant assessment was adopted. The sample included 62 first and second grade students along with eight EFL teachers from five private schools in Ankara, Turkey. Students participated from 10 different EFL classrooms. Logistic regression analysis showed that these students’ sense of peer relatedness was positively and significantly related to their autonomous motivation in EFL lessons. There was not any significant relation among students’ sense of peer relatedness and their agentic and behavioral engagement. Similarly, no significant relation was found among students’ quality of L2 motivation and their agentic and behavioral engagement. Supplementary analyses (non-parametric 2-independent Mann Whitney U Tests) showed that students with only autonomous motivation do not differ from students with only controlled motivation in their agentic and behavioral engagement. The findings of the study underscore the importance of the social environment in the elementary EFL classroom for young students’ quality of motivation. Item Open AccessInvestigating the role of multi-word expressions in writing proficiency and overall English language proficiency of EFL students at a Turkish university(Bilkent University, 2020-09) Torlak, Metin; Peker, HilalThe purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between frequency values of multi-word expressions (MWEs) and the writing proficiency and overall proficiency of tertiary level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. The correlational study was conducted with 63 learners at the school of foreign languages of a state university in Ankara, Turkey. Having collected the essays written by the learners, the researcher applied a two-step item extraction method. After MWEs in the essays were tagged by two experienced raters, frequency-based association strength values were assigned to each phrase. The association strength values were obtained through a reference corpus to determine the MWEs accepted for regression analyses. The results indicated that proportion and mutual information scores of MWEs were significant predictors of the writing proficiency of the learners. Another finding of the study was that no relationship was found between proportion and mutual information scores of MWEs and the overall proficiency of the learners. As MWE frequency measures were predictive of writing proficiency, inclusion of MWEs thoroughly in EFL curricula might be suggested as an implication. Item Open AccessInvestigation of the reconceptualized L2 motivational self system, foreign language classroom anxiety, perceived wellness, and achievement of repeat and non-repeat students(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Ayhan, Anıl; Peker, HilalThe purpose of this study is to examine how repeat and non-repeat students differ in terms of their R-L2MSS, FLCA, and PW. Furthermore, it is investigated how R L2MSS, FLCA, and PW correlate with each other, and what factors can predict student achievement. The survey used in the study was a combination of R-L2MSS (Peker, 2016), FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986), and PWS (Adams, Bezner, & Steinhardt, 1997) scales. Participants in the study were 164 students enrolled in an English preparatory school program of a foundation university in Ankara, Turkey. Independent t-tests, Pearson’s correlation tests, and a multiple linear regression test were used to analyse the quantitative data obtained for the current study. Results showed that repeat students had higher levels of PW compared to non repeat students. In addition, correlation tests showed that students with higher OL2S or FL2S had higher levels of FLCA while students with higher IL2S, or better ELE had lower levels of FLCA. FLCA was also found to be the only construct that predicted midterm scores. In line with these findings, implications were provided. Item Open AccessForeign language teaching anxiety and self-efficacy perceptions of native and nonnative EFL instructors at tertiary level institutions(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Eren, Gamze; Peker, HilalThis quantitative study investigated the foreign language teaching anxiety and teacher self-efficacy perceptions of 53 native and 180 non-native teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Turkish universities. The findings revealed low levels of anxiety and high levels of teacher self-efficacy among the participants. A weak to moderate negative correlation was found between the two constructs. Non-native teachers had significantly higher FL teaching anxiety than the natives; however, no significant difference was found in their perceived teacher self-efficacy. Female participants in both groups had significantly higher levels of anxiety and teacher self efficacy than the males. No other significant result was observed among the natives. However, significant differences in anxiety among the non-native participants were found in terms of age, major, and years of experience. Similarly, significant differences in teacher self-efficacy were observed in terms of major, years of experience, and students’ proficiency levels of the non-natives. Qualifications and last completed degree made no significant difference in anxiety or self-efficacy perceptions of native and non-native teachers. Item Open AccessA structural equation model on EFL tertiary level students' academic buoyancy, academic resilience, reconceptualized L2 motivational self system, and their academic achieveme(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Toprak Çelen, Esma; Peker, HilalIn this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship among academic buoyancy, academic resilience, reconceptualized L2 motivational self system, and tertiary level students’ academic achievement. The study was conducted at a public university in Ankara, Turkey. The data were derived from 436 tertiary level students receiving one-year intensive English education to start their studies in their departments. They were required to become proficient in English to gain the right to start their majors. The data were gathered through an adopted survey, and analyzed via SPSS v.25 and SmartPLS v.3.2.9. A new model was created to explain the relationships among the variables through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings revealed significant relationships between the participants’ academic buoyancy and their midterm average scores as well as between the feared L2 self and academic buoyancy. Also, participants’ ideal L2 selves and English learning experiences were found to be strong predictors of their perseverance. Results were discussed and implications were provided in line with the current findings of the new model. Item Open AccessA structural equation model on translanguaging practices, foreign language classroom anxiety, reconceptualized L2 motivational self system, and foreign language achievement of emergent bilinguals(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Özkaynak, Onur; Peker, HilalThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translanguaging practices, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), reconceptualized L2 motivational self system (R-L2MSS), and English language achievement scores of emergent bilinguals. To this end, 386 A1 and A2-level English learners, studying at a preparatory school of a university in Turkey, took part in the study. The quantitative data were derived through a 45-item survey. First, an exploratory factor analysis performed on the responses to the Translanguaging Practices Scale and two factors were obtained. Subsequently, the whole data were adapted and tested for measurement model validity and reliability. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results, analyzed in Smart PLS (Version 3.2.9), revealed there was a statistically significant relationship between translanguaging practices, foreign language classroom anxiety, and reconceptualized L2 motivational self system. However, the relationship between translanguaging practices and English language achievement scores was not statistically significant. Item Open AccessAn investigation of adult EFL learners' foreign language pronunciation anxiety and reconceptualized L2 motivational self system regarding English pronunciation in the context of a higher education institution in Turkey(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Tekten, Burcu; Peker, HilalIn this study, foreign language pronunciation anxiety of English learners was examined within the scope of Reconceptualized L2 Motivational Self System. This non-experimental, cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted with 596 participants at the school of foreign languages of a state university in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed online to collect data. The items of the questionnaire were adopted and adapted from Kralova, Skorvagova, Tirpakova, and Markechova (2017), Peker (2016), and Baran-Lucarz (2016). In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics were run. The results indicated that foreign language pronunciation anxiety was a determinant of future L2 pronunciation selves. Moreover, feared L2 pronunciation self negatively correlated with ideal L2 pronunciation self, whereas it correlated positively with ought-to L2 pronunciation self. Finally, foreign language pronunciation anxiety was higher in female learners, less proficient learners, learners who had never been abroad and learners who had been learning English for a shorter period of time. Item Open AccessPerceptions of Turkish EFL instructors and their students on native and non-native accents of English and English as a lingua franca (ELF)(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Akçay, Aslı; Peker, HilalIn the current study, perceptions of Turkish EFL instructors and their students on native and non-native accents of English and English as a lingua franca (ELF) were explored. Moreover, how the EFL instructors and students see the position and ownership of English as a native language and as a lingua franca all over the world and their own use of ELF was also investigated. The study was conducted with 78 non-native English instructors and 214 English prep school students at a state university. The data were collected over a six-week period via an online survey that consisted of four sections. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized in the analysis. The results indicated that both the instructors and students were aware of ELF on a theoretical level, yet had some hesitations about the practical implications of it. The results also showed that participants liked the native accents (i.e. British, American) more than the non-native ones. Moreover, the speakers of the native accents were associated with characteristics that are more positive. Both the instructors and students had a positive attitude towards English language and were aware of its instrumental and widespread value, but regarded the native speakers as the owner of the language. Item Open AccessTertiary level EFL students’ perceptions regarding the use of Edmodo, Quizlet, and Canva within technology acceptance model (Tam)(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Çeçen, Gözem; Peker, HilalThe purpose of this quantitative study was to examine tertiary level EFL learners’ perceptions on the use of the Web 2.0 tools (i.e. Edmodo, Quizlet, Canva). This study was conducted with 90 participants at an English language preparatory school of a state university in Turkey. The results indicated that lower level students reported more positive opinions pertaining the use of the tools individually or altogether when compared to higher level students. The participants significantly differed from one another in terms of their perceptions of the awareness and actual system usage of the tools. It was also found that the perceptions of the awareness could slightly and the perceptions of the actual system usage of the Web 2.0 tools could moderately predict the perceptions of the perceived usefulness of the tools. The implications of this study indicate that these already repeatedly used tools as a curricular task could be substituted or replaced with other tools to alleviate the oversaturation and reluctance of the use of the Web 2.0 tools by learners. Also, their opinions could also be taken into consideration when choosing which Web 2.0 tools to be implemented into language laboratory lessons so that their perceptions on the perceived usefulness, awareness and actual system usage of the tools could be positively shaped. Further research is required in the literature to give more support to generalize the results. Item Open AccessInvestigating the relationship between the reflective practices and the possible language teacher selves of EFL instructors at a Turkish state university(Bilkent University, 2020-06) Özsoy, Özge; Peker, HilalThe aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant relationship between EFL instructors’ reflective practices and their possible language teacher selves. This correlational quantitative study was conducted with 94 EFL instructors working at a school of foreign languages at a state university in Turkey. The data were collected via an online survey, which was designed to investigate EFL instructors’ engagement in reflective practice, and their perceived levels of possible language teacher selves. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses revealed that EFL instructors sometimes engaged in reflective practice, and they had a high level of ideal language teacher self. The results also revealed that there was a statistically significant relationship between EFL instructors’ overall reflective practice and their possible language teacher selves. Practical, cognitive, learner-related, and meta-cognitive types of reflective practice were found to have a statistically significant relationship with at least one type of possible language teacher selves.