Department of Psychology

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 242
  • ItemOpen Access
    Successful complaint handling on social media predicts increased repurchase intention: The roles of trust in company and propensity to trust
    (Elsevier, 2022-06-25) Istanbulluoglu, Doga; Sakman, Ezgi; Sakman, Ezgi
    This study investigates the relationships between company responses to social media complaints and consumers' repurchase intentions. An online survey collected data from 325 participants who complained on social media. The relationship between repurchase intention and the five dimensions of complaint handling (timeliness, redress, apology, credibility, and attentiveness) as mediated by consumers' trust in company were examined and consumers’ propensity to trust was studied as a moderator in this relationship. The results suggest receiving a response and four dimensions of the response (redress, apology, credibility, and attentiveness) are related to stronger repurchase intention through the mediation of increased trust in company. Furthermore, consumers who are low on propensity to trust report a stronger repurchase intention when they perceive the credibility of the company to be high in handling the complaint. © 2022 The Authors
  • ItemOpen Access
    Learning to perceive non-native tones via distributional training: Effects of task and acoustic cue weighting
    (MDPI, 2022-04-27) Liu, Liquan; Yuan, Chi; Ong, Jia Hoong; Tuninetti, Alba; Antoniou, Mark; Cutler, Anne; Escudero, Paola; Tuninetti, Alba
    As many distributional learning (DL) studies have shown, adult listeners can achieve discrimination of a difficult non-native contrast after a short repetitive exposure to tokens falling at the extremes of that contrast. Such studies have shown using behavioural methods that a short distributional training can induce perceptual learning of vowel and consonant contrasts. However, much less is known about the neurological correlates of DL, and few studies have examined non-native lexical tone contrasts. Here, Australian-English speakers underwent DL training on a Mandarin tone contrast using behavioural (discrimination, identification) and neural (oddball-EEG) tasks, with listeners hearing either a bimodal or a unimodal distribution. Behavioural results show that listeners learned to discriminate tones after both unimodal and bimodal training; while EEG responses revealed more learning for listeners exposed to the bimodal distribution. Thus, perceptual learning through exposure to brief sound distributions (a) extends to non-native tonal contrasts, and (b) is sensitive to task, phonetic distance, and acoustic cue-weighting. Our findings have implications for models of how auditory and phonetic constraints influence speech learning. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Pathways linking school bullying and psychotic experiences: Multiple mediation analysis in Chinese adolescents and young adults
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-10-28) Chen, Lu Hua; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Toulopoulou, Timothea
    It is found that people with psychotic experiences have a 4-fold increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder later in life. Indeed, accumulating evidence has suggested that the association between school bullying and psychotic experiences works linearly. Previous studies are mainly carried out in a Western context, and only seldomly do studies address whether the association exists in the Chinese population and the related psychological and cognitive mechanisms. Therefore, we carried out the current study to address this gap in the literature focusing on the lifelong school bullying experiences of Chinese adolescents and young adults. We examined them in relation to psychotic experiences while assessing the mediating role of self-esteem, the personality trait of neuroticism, and a cognitive bias in thinking called interpretation bias. We found that multiple victimizations were quite common in Hong Kong secondary schools. In addition to a significant association between school bullying and psychotic experiences, we found partial mediating effects of proposed psychological and cognitive mediators in constructed multiple mediation models utilizing bootstrapping approach. Specifically, bullying quantity reflecting the number of victimizations, had its association with psychotic experiences partially mediated by the personality trait of neuroticism. In contrast, bullying duration reflecting the lasting of victimization was associated with psychotic experiences partially mediated by the personality trait of neuroticism and interpretation bias. Our findings enhance our knowledge of mechanisms underpinning the psychosis spectrum development and have implications for school-based intervention programs targeting bullying victims. Copyright © 2022 Chen and Toulopoulou.
  • ItemOpen Access
    British adolescents are more likely than children to support bystanders who challenge exclusion of immigrant peers
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-08-08) Gönültaş, Seçil; Ketzitzidou Argyri, Eirini; Yüksel, Ayşe Şule; Palmer, Sally B.; McGuire, Luke; Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam; Gönültaş, Seçil
    The present study examined British children’s and adolescents’ individual and perceived group evaluations of a challenger when a member of one’s own group excludes a British national or an immigrant newcomer to the school (Turkish or Australian) from participating in a group activity. Participants included British children (n = 110, Mage in years = 9.69, SD = 1.07, 44 girls, aged 8–11) and adolescents (n = 193, Mage in years = 14.16, SD = 0.92, 104 girls, aged 13–16), who were inducted into their group and heard hypothetical scenarios in which a member of their own group expressed a desire to exclude the newcomer from joining their activity. Subsequently, participants heard that another member of the ingroup challenged the exclusionary act by stating that they should be inclusive. Children’s and adolescents’ individual evaluations of the bystander who challenged the social exclusion of an immigrant peer were more positive than their perceived group evaluations, recognizing that groups are often exclusionary. Only adolescents but not children differed in their individual and perceived group evaluations in the social exclusion of British peers. When the newcomer was an immigrant peer, adolescents were more likely to evaluate the challenger positively in both their individual and perceived group evaluations compared to children. Further, children, compared to adolescents, were more likely to reason about social and group norms to justify their evaluations only when the excluded peer was an immigrant but not when the excluded peer was British. Adolescents were more likely to reason about fairness, rights, and equality. The findings indicate that exclusionary group norms surrounding immigrants begin in childhood. Interventions that focus on changing group norms to be more inclusive could be effective in reducing prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants in childhood. Copyright © 2022 Gönültaş, Ketzitzidou Argyri, Yüksel, Palmer, McGuire, Killen and Rutland.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An Exploratory Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Human-Robot Interactions With Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-07-18) Yorgancigil, Emre; Yildirim, Funda; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşen; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşen
    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been gaining increasing interest as a practical mobile functional brain imaging technology for understanding the neural correlates of social cognition and emotional processing in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC). Considering the cognitive complexity of human-robot interactions, the aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of emotional processing of congruent and incongruent pairs of human and robot audio-visual stimuli in the human PFC with fNIRS methodology. Hemodynamic responses from the PFC region of 29 subjects were recorded with fNIRS during an experimental paradigm which consisted of auditory and visual presentation of human and robot stimuli. Distinct neural responses to human and robot stimuli were detected at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) regions. Presentation of robot voice elicited significantly less hemodynamic response than presentation of human voice in a left OFC channel. Meanwhile, processing of human faces elicited significantly higher hemodynamic activity when compared to processing of robot faces in two left DLPFC channels and a left OFC channel. Significant correlation between the hemodynamic and behavioral responses for the face-voice mismatch effect was found in the left OFC. Our results highlight the potential of fNIRS for unraveling the neural processing of human and robot audio-visual stimuli, which might enable optimization of social robot designs and contribute to elucidation of the neural processing of human and robot stimuli in the PFC in naturalistic conditions. Copyright © 2022 Yorgancigil, Yildirim, Urgen and Erdogan.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cooking through perceptual disfluencies: The effects of auditory and visual distortions on predicted and actual memory performance
    (Springer New York LLC, 2022-11-23) Ardıç, Ecem Eylül; Besken, Miri; Ardıç, Ecem Eylül; Beske, Miri
    The current study investigated the joint contribution of visual and auditory disfuencies, or distortions, to actual and predicted memory performance with naturalistic, multi-modal materials through three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants watched food recipe clips containing visual and auditory information that were either fully intact or else distorted in one or both of the two modalities. They were asked to remember these for a later memory test and made memory predictions after each clip. Participants produced lower memory predictions for distorted auditory and visual information than intact ones. However, these perceptual distortions revealed no actual memory diferences across encoding conditions, expanding the metacognitive illusion of perceptual disfuency for static, single-word materials to naturalistic, dynamic, multi-modal materials. Experiment 3 provided naïve participants with a hypothetical scenario about the experimental paradigm used in Experiment 1, revealing lower memory predictions for distorted than intact information in both modalities. Theoretically, these results imply that both in-the-moment experiences and a priori beliefs may contribute to the perceptual disfuency illusion. From an applied perspective, the study suggests that when audio-visual distortions occur, individuals might use this information to predict their memory performance, even when it does not factor into actual memory performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Taming the boojum: Being theoretical about peculiarities of learning
    (Psychonomic Society, Inc., 2022) Bowers, Robert Ian; Bowers, Robert Ian
    The case of the “biological constraints” movement in mid-20th-century psychology provides a reminder of the weight of psychology’s reliance on theory and theory-driven methods. By 1980, a critical mass of demonstrations of the specifcity of learning had eroded faith in general-process approaches. A common reaction was to call for a biological orientation. However, this proved not as straightforward as it had seemed, and much of the ostensibly biological research that followed was atheoretical. The successes in this context were due to careful theoretical work by people who appreciated the aims of the involved sciences and the interdependence of the aims with methods. Michael Domjan slowed the feld’s haphazard rush into ostensible biological research, and rather urged adoption of principled biological approaches. In 1982, his positive recommendation was for comparative psychology to begin to live up to its name, and adopt principled comparative methods as practised in biology. Although lauded, few followed this recommendation. Indeed, even Domjan’s own subsequent research was mostly not comparative in the way he had described, but rather involved single species, guided by a behaviour systems approach. With reference to two major perspectives associated with Domjan—comparative methods and behaviour systems theory—I present Domjan’s challenge not as being to make our feld comparative per se, but to make it theoretical. This challenge remains current.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Attentional modulations of audiovisual interactions in apparent motion: Temporal ventriloquism effects on perceived visual speed
    (Springer New York LLC, 2022-08-22) Duyar, Aysun; Pavan, Andrea; Duyar, Aysun
    The timing of brief stationary sounds has been shown to alter different aspects of visual motion, such as speed estimation. These effects of auditory timing have been explained by temporal ventriloquism and auditory dominance over visual information in the temporal domain. Although previous studies provide unprecedented evidence for the multisensory nature of speed estimation, how attention is involved in these audiovisual interactions remains unclear. Here, we aimed to understand the effects of spatial attention on these audiovisual interactions in time. We utilized a set of audiovisual stimuli that elicit temporal ventriloquism in visual apparent motion and asked participants to perform a speed comparison task. We manipulated attention either in the visual or auditory domain and systematically changed the number of moving objects in the visual field. When attention was diverted to a stationary object in the visual field via a secondary task, the temporal ventriloquism effects on perceived speed decreased. On the other hand, focusing attention on the auditory stimuli facilitated these effects consistently across different difficulty levels of secondary auditory task. Moreover, the effects of auditory timing on perceived speed did not change with the number of moving objects and existed in all the experimental conditions. Taken together, our findings revealed differential effects of allocating attentional resources in the visual and auditory domains. These behavioral results also demonstrate that reliable temporal ventriloquism effects on visual motion can be induced even in the presence of multiple moving objects in the visual field and under different perceptual load conditions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    For generation Z: What is the underlying reason between emotional intelligence and depression relationship?
    (Sosyoekonomi Society, 2022-07-29) İnanç, Ebru Evrensel; Aydoğmuş, Ceren; Camgöz, Selin Metin; Özdilek, Elif; İnanç, Ebru Evrensel; Aydoğmuş, Ceren; Özdilek, Elif
    Exploring the individual characteristics of Generation Z becomes crucial with this generation's increasing number and significance in business life. This study investigates the mediating role of life satisfaction on emotional intelligence and depression linkage. It examines whether the mediating role is contingent upon Generation Z’s majors (STEM/non-STEM) and gender. The universe was Generation Z university senior students. Data were gathered via an online survey (emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, depression scales) from 844 university students. Findings reveal that emotional intelligence decreases depression via life satisfaction. Gender moderated this relationship so that the mediating role of life satisfaction was more pronounced in female Generation Z.
  • ItemOpen Access
    “My robot friend”: Application of intergroup contact theory in human-robot interaction
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022-09-29) Akay, Selen; Arslan, B.; Bağcı, S. C.; Kanero, J.; Akay, Selen; Arslan, B.; Bağcı, S. C.; Kanero, J.
    We present pilot data for one of the first comprehensive investigations of Intergroup Contact Theory [1], [2] in the context of human-robot interaction. Applying an actual intergroup contact procedure known to affect intergroup attitudes among humans (e.g., [3]), we examined whether human-robot interaction as a positive intergroup contact would change participants' evaluation of robots. Our data from 28 student participants ( N=15 in the interaction condition and N=13 in the no-interaction condition) suggest that after the participant and robot self-disclosed to each other (Fast Friendship Task), participants (1) felt more positive emotions towards robots, (2) perceived robots as warmer, and (3) identified robots as more similar to humans. These preliminary findings invite further research on the application of Intergroup Contact Theory in examining social human-robot interaction and its possible contributions to understanding human psychology.
  • ItemOpen Access
    English and Mandarin native speakers' cue-weighting of lexical stress: Results from MMN and LDN
    (2022-09) Zeng, Z.; Liu, L.; Tuninetti, Alba; Peter, V.; Tsao, F. - M.; Mattock, K.; Tuninetti, Alba
    Past research on how listeners weight stress cues such as pitch, duration and intensity has reported two inconsistent patternss: listeners’ weighting conforms to 1) their native language experience (e.g., language rhythmicity, lexical tone), and 2) a general “iambic-trochaic law” (ITL), favouring innate sound groupings in cue perception. This study aims to tease apart the above effects by investigating the weighting of pitch, duration and intensity cues in stress-timed (Australian English) and non-stress-timed and tonal (Taiwan Mandarin) language speaking adults using a mismatch negativity (MMN) multi-feature paradigm. Results show effects that can be explained by language-specific rhythmic influence, but only partially by the ITL. Moreover, these findings revealed cross-linguistic differences indexed by both MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDN) responses at cue and syllable position levels, and thus call for more sophisticated perspectives for existing cue-weighting models.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predicting personality traits with semantic structures and LSTM-based neural networks
    (Elsevier, 2022-10) Kosan, Muhammed Ali; Karacan, Hacer; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşen; Ürgen, Burcu Ayşen
    There is a need to obtain more information about target audiences in many areas such as law enforcement agencies, institutions, human resources, and advertising agencies. In this context, in addition to the information provided by individuals, their personal characteristics are also important. In particular, the predictability of personality traits of individuals is seen as a major parameter in making decisions about individuals. Textual and media data in social media, where people produce the most data, can provide clues about people's personal lives, characteristics, and personalities. Each social media environment may contain different assets and structures. Therefore, it is important to make a structural analysis according to the social media platform. There is also a need for a labelled dataset to develop a model that can predict personality traits from social media data. In this study, first, a personality dataset was created which was retrieved from Twitter and labelled with IBM Personality Insight. Then the unstructured data were transformed into meaningful and processable data, LSTM-based prediction models were created with the structural analysis, and evaluations were made on both our dataset and PAN-2015-EN. © 2022 THE AUTHORS
  • ItemOpen Access
    Task-dependent warping of semantic representations during search for visual action categories
    (The Journal of Neuroscience, 2022-08-31) Shahdloo, Mo; Çelik, Emin; Urgen, Burcu A.; Gallant, J.L.; Çukur, Tolga; Shahdloo, Mo; Çelik, Emin; Burcu A., Urgen; Çukur, Tolga
    Object and action perception in cluttered dynamic natural scenes relies on efficient allocation of limited brain resources to prioritize the attended targets over distractors. It has been suggested that during visual search for objects, distributed semantic representation of hundreds of object categories is warped to expand the representation of targets. Yet, little is known about whether and where in the brain visual search for action categories modulates semantic representations. To address this fundamental question, we studied brain activity recorded from five subjects (one female) via functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed natural movies and searched for either communication or locomotion actions. We find that attention directed to action categories elicits tuning shifts that warp semantic representations broadly across neocortex and that these shifts interact with intrinsic selectivity of cortical voxels for target actions. These results suggest that attention serves to facilitate task performance during social interactions by dynamically shifting semantic selectivity toward target actions and that tuning shifts are a general feature of conceptual representations in the brain.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2022-05-27) Legate, N.; Nguyen, T.; Weinstein, N.; Moller, A.; Legault, L.; Vally, Z.; Tajchman, Z.; Zsido, A. N.; Zrimsek, M.; Chen, Z.; Ziano, I.; Gialitaki, Z.; Basnight-Brown, D. M.; Ceary, C. D.; Jang, Y.; Ijzerman, H.; Lin, Y.; Kunisato, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Xiao, Q.; Jiang, X.; Du, X.; Yao, E.; Ryan, W. S.; Wilson, J. P.; Cyrus-Lai, W.; Jimenez-Leal, W.; Law, W.; Unanue, W.; Collins, W. M.; Richard, K. L.; Vranka, M.; Ankushev, V.; Schei, V.; Lerche, V.; Kovic, V.; Krizanic, V.; Kadreva, V. H.; Adoric, V. C.; Tran, U. S.; Yeung, S. K.; Hassan, W.; Houston, R.; Urry, H. L.; Machin, M. A.; Lima, T. J. S.; Ostermann, T.; Frizzo, T.; Sverdrup, T. E.; House, T.; Gill, T.; Fedetov, M.; Paltrow, T.; Moshontz, H.; Jernsäther, T.; Rahman, T.; Machin, T.; Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M.; Hostler, T. J.; Ishii, T.; Szazsi, B.; Adamus, S.; Suter, L.; Von Bormann, S. M.; Habib, S.; Studzinska, A.; Stojanovska, D.; Jansenn, S. M. J.; Stieger, S.; Primbs, M. A.; Schulenberg, S. E.; Buchanan, E. M.; Tatachari, S.; Azouaghe, S.; Sorokowski, P.; Sorokowska, A.; Song, X.; Morbée, S.; Lewis, S.; Sinkolova, S.; Grigoryev, D.; Drexler, S. M.; Daches, S.; Levine, S. L.; Geniole, S. N.; Akter, S.; Vracar, S.; Massoni, S.; Costa, S.; Zorjan, S.; Sarioguz, E.; Izquierdo, S. M.; Tshonda, S. S.; Miller, J. K.; Alves, S. G.; Pöntinen, S.; Solas, S. A.; Ordoñez-Riaño, S.; Ocovaj, S. B.; Onie, S.; Lins, S.; Biberauer, T.; Çoksan, S.; Khumkom, S.; Sacakli, A.; Coles, N. A.; Ruiz-Fernández, S.; Geiger, S. J.; FatahModares, S.; Walczak, R. B.; Betlehem, R.; Vilar, R.; Cárcamo, R. A.; Ross, R. M.; McCarthy, R.; Ballantyne, T.; Westgate, E. C.; Ryan, R. M.; Gargurevich, R.; Afhami, R.; Ren, D.; Monteiro, R. P.; Reips, U.; Reggev, N.; Calin-Jageman, R. J.; Pourafshari, R.; Oliveira, R.; Nedelcheva-Datsova, M.; Rahal, R.; Ribeiro, R. R.; Radtke, T.; Searston, R.; Jai-Ai, R.; Habte, R.; Zdybek, P.; Chen, S; Wajanatinapart, P.; Maturan, P. L. G.; Perillo, J. T.; Isager, P. M.; Kacmár, P.; Macapagal, P. M.; Maniaci, M. R.; Szwed, P.; Hanel, P. H. P.; Forbes, P. A. G.; Arriaga, P.; Paris, B.; Parashar, N.; Papachristopoulos, K.; Chartier, C. R.; Correa, P. S.; Kácha, O.; Bernardo, M.; Campos, O.; Bravo, O. N.; Mallik, P. R.; Gallindo-Caballero, O. J.; Ogbonnaya, C. E.; Bialobrzeska, O.; Kiselnikova, N.; Simonovic, N.; Cohen, N.; Nock, N. L.; Hernandez, A.; Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.; Ntoumanis, N.; Johannes, N.; Albayrak-Aydemir, N.; Say, N.; Neubauer, A. B.; Martin, N. I.; Torunsky, N.; Van Antwerpen, N.; Van Doren, N.; Sunami, N.; Rachev, N. R.; Majeed, N. M.; Schmidt, N.; Nadif, K.; Forscher, P. S.; Corral-Frias, N. S.; Ouherrou, N.; Abbas, N.; Pantazi, M.; Lucas, M. Y.; Vasilev, M. R.; Ortiz, M. V.; Butt, M. M.; Kurfali, M.; Kabir, M.; Muda, R.; Del Carmen M. C. Tejada Rivera, M.; Sirota, M.; Seehuus, M.; Parzuchowski, M.; Toro, M.; Hricova, M.; Maldonado, M. A.; Arvanitis, A.; Rentzelas, P.; Vansteenkiste, M.; Metz, M. A.; Marszalek, M.; Karekla, M.; Mioni, G.; Bosma, M. J.; Westerlund, M.; Vdovic, M.; Bialek, M.; Silan, M. A.; Anne, M.; Misiak, M.; Gugliandolo, M. C.; Grinberg, M.; Capizzi, M.; Espinoza Barria, M. F.; Kurfali, Merve A.; Mensink, M. C.; Harutyunyan, M.; Khosla, M.; Dunn, M. R.; Korbmacher, M.; Adamkovic, M.; Ribeiro, M. F. F.; Terskova, M.; Hruška, M.; Martoncik, M.; Voracek, M.; Cadek, M.; Frias-Armenta, M.; Kowal, M.; Topor, M.; Roczniewska, M.; Oosterlinck, M.; Thomas, A. G.; Kohlová, M. B.; Paruzel-Czachura, M.; Sabristov, M.; Greenburgh, A.; Romanova, M.; Papadatou-Pastou, M.; Lund, M. L.; Antoniadi, M.; Magrin, M. E.; Jones, M. V.; Li, M.; Ortiz, M. S.; Manavalan, M.; Muminov, A.; Stoyanova, A.; Kossowska, M.; Friedemann, M.; Wielgus, M.; Van Hooff, M. L. M; Varella, M. A. C.; Standage, M.; Nicolotti, M.; Coloff, M. F.; Bradford, M.; Vaughn, L. A.; Eudave, L.; Vieira, L.; Lu, J. G.; Pineda, L. M. S.; Matos, L.; Pérez, L. C.; Lazarevic, L. B.; Jaremka, L. M.; Smit, E. S.; Kushnir, E.; Wichman, A. L.; Ferguson, L. J.; Anton-Boicuk, L.; De Holanda Coelho, G. L.; Ahlgren, L.; Liga, F.; Levitan, C. A.; Micheli, L.; Gunton, L.; Volz, L.; Stojanovska, M.; Boucher, L.; Samojlenko, L.; Delgado, L. G. J.; Kaliska, L.; Beatrix, L.; Warmelink, L.; Rojas-Berscia, L. M.; Yu, K.; Wylie, K.; Wachowicz, J.; Charyate, A. C.; Desai, K.; Barzykowski, K.; Kozma, L.; Evans, K.; Kirgizova, K.; Belaus, A.; Emmanuel Agesin, B. B.; Koehn, M. A.; Wolfe, K.; Korobova, T.; Morris, K.; Klevjer, K.; Van Schie, K.; Vezirian, K.; Damnjanovic, K.; Thommesen, K. K.; Schmidt, K.; Filip, K.; Staniaszek, K.; Adetula, A.; Grzech, K.; Hoyer, K.; Moon, K.; Khaobunmasiri, S.; Rana, K.; Janjic, K.; Suchow, J. W.; Kielinska, J.; Cruz Vásquez, J. E.; Chanal, J.; Beitner, J.; Vargas-Nieto, J. C.; Roxas, J. C. T.; Taber, J.; Urriago-Rayo, J.; Askelund, A. D.; Pavlacic, J. M.; Benka, J.; Bavolar, J.; Soto, J. A.; Olofsson, J. K.; Vilsmeier, J. K.; Messerschmidt, J.; Czamanski-Cohen, J.; Waterschoot, J.; Moss, J. D.; Boudesseul, J.; Lee, J. M.; Kamburidis, J.; Joy-Gaba, J. A.; Zickfeld, J.; Miranda, J. F.; Verharen, J. P. H.; Hristova, E.; Beshears, J. E.; Djordjevic, J. M.; Bosch, J.; Valentova, J. V.; Antfolk, J.; Berkessel, J. B.; Schrötter, J.; Urban, J.; Röer, J. P.; Norton, J. O.; Silva, J. R.; Pickerin, J. S.; Vintr, J.; Uttly, J.; Kunst, J. R.; Ndukaihe, I. L. G.; Iyer, A.; Vilares, I.; Ivanov, A.; Ropovik, I.; Sula, I.; Groyecka-Bernard, A.; Sarieva, I.; Metin-Orta, I.; Prusova, I.; Pinto, I.; Bozdoc, A. I.; Almeida, I. A. T.; Pit, I. L.; Dalgar, I.; Zakharov, I.; Arinze, A. I.; Ihaya, K.; Stephen, I. D.; Gjoneska, B.; Brohmer, H.; Flowe, H.; Godbersen, H.; Kocalar, H. E.; Hedgebeth, M. V.; Chuan-Peng, H.; Sharifian, M.; Manley, H.; Akkas, H.; Hajdu, N.; Azab, H.; Kaminski, G.; Nilsonne, G.; Anjum, G.; Travaglino, G. A.; Feldman, G.; Pfuhl, G.; Czarnek, G.; Marcu, G. M.; Hofer, G.; Banik, G.; Adetula, G. A.; Bijlstra, G.; Verbruggen, F.; Kung, F. Y. H.; Martela, F.; Foroni, F.; Forest, J.; Singer, G.; Muchembled, F.; Azevedo, F.; Mosannenzadeh, F.; Marinova, E.; Strukelj, E.; Etebari, Z.; Bradshaw, E. L.; Baskin, E.; Garcia, E. O. L.; Musser, E.; Van Steenkiste, I. M. M.; Ahn, E. R.; Quested, E.; Pronizius, E.; Jackson, E. A.; Manunta, E.; Agadullina, E.; Sakan, D.; Dursun, P.; Dujols, O.; Dubrov, D.; Willis, M.; Tümer, M.; Beaudry, J. L.; Popovic, D.; Dunleavy, D.; Djamal, I.; Krupic, D.; Herrera, D.; Vega, D.; Du, H.; Mola, D.; Chakarova, D.; Davis, W. E.; Holford, D. L.; Lewis, D. M. G.; Vaidis, D. C.; Ozery, D. H.; Ricaurte, D. Z.; Storage, D.; Sousa, D.; Alvarez, D. S.; Boller, D.; Rosa, A. D.; Dimova, D.; Krupic, D.; Marko, D.; Moreau, D.; Reeck, C.; Correia, R. C.; Whitt, C. M.; Lamm, C.; Solorzano, C. S.; Von Bastian, C. C.; Sutherland, C. A. M.; Ebersole, C. R.; Overkott, C.; Aberson, C. L.; Wang, C.; Niemiec, C. P.; Karashiali, C.; Noone, C.; Chiu, F.; Picchiocchi, C.; Brownlow, C.; Karaarslan, C.; Cellini, N.; Esteban-Serna, C.; Reyna, C.; Ferreyra, C.; Batres, C.; Li, R.; Grano, C.; Carpentier, J.; Tamnes, C. K.; Fu, C. H. Y.; Ishkhanyan, B.; Bylinina, L.; Jaeger, B.; Bundt, C.; Allred, T. B.; Vermote, B. J.; Bokkour, A.; Bogatyreva, N.; Shi, J.; Chopik, W. J.; Antazo, B.; Behzadnia, B.; Becker, M.; Bayyat, M. M.; Cocco, B.; Ahmed, A.; Chou, W.; Barkoukis, V.; Hubena, B.; Khaoudi, A.; Žuro, B.; Aczel, B.; Baklanova, E.; Bai, H.; Balci, B. B.; Babincák, P.; Soenens, B.; Dixson, B. J. W.; Mokady, A.; Kappes, H. B.; Atari, M.; Szala, A.; Szabelska, A.; Aruta, J. J. B.; Domurat, A.; Arinze, N. C.; Modena, A.; Adiguzel, A.; Monajem, A.; Ait El Arabi, K.; Özdogru, A. A.; Rothbaum, A. O.; Torres, A. O.; Theodoropoulou, A.; Skowronek, A.; Urooj, A.; Jurkovic, A. P.; Singh, A.; Kassianos, A. P.; Findor, A.; Hartanto, A.; Landry, A. T.; Ferreira, A.; Santos, A. C.; De La Rosa-Gomez, A.; Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, A.; Luxon, A. M.; Todsen, A. L.; Karababa, A.; Janak, A.; Pilato, A.; Bran, A.; Tullett, A. M.; Kuzminska, A. O.; Krafnik, A. J.; Kurfali, Merve A.; Massey, D.
    Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This crosscountry, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared with the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly internalized form of motivation relying on one's core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people's existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing. Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intention to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Correlates of psychotic like experiences (PLEs) during Pandemic: An online study investigating a possible link between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and PLEs among adolescents
    (Elsevier B.V., 2022-01-05) Yilmaz Kafali, Helin; Turan, Serkan; Akpınar, Serap; Mutlu, Müge; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Çöp, Esra; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Toulopoulou, Timothea
    Background This study investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 infection, depression, anxiety, sleep problems, cigarette, alcohol, drug usage contribute to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) among adolescents during the pandemic. We also aimed to explore whether baseline inflammatory markers or the number of SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms are associated with PLEs, and the latter is mediated by internalizing symptoms. Methods Altogether, 684 adolescents aged 12–18 (SARS-CoV-2 group n = 361, control group (CG) n = 323) were recruited. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-42-Positive Dimension (CAPE-Pos), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were completed by all volunteers using an online survey. C-reactive Protein and hemogram values, and SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms during the acute infection period were recorded in the SARS-CoV-2 group. Group comparisons, correlations, logistic regression, and bootstrapped mediation analyses were performed. Results CAPE-Pos-Frequency/Stress scores were significantly higher, whereas GAD-7-Total and PSQI-Total scores were significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 than CG. Among the SARS-CoV-2 group, monocyte count and the number of SARS-CoV-2-symptoms were positively correlated with CAPE-Pos-Frequency/Stress scores. Besides SARS-CoV-2, cigarette use, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores significantly contributed to the presence of at least one CAPE-Pos “often” or “almost always”. PHQ-9 and GAD-7 fully mediated the relationship between the number of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms and CAPE-Pos-Frequency. Conclusions This study is the first to show a possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and PLEs among adolescents. Depression, anxiety, and cigarette use also contributed to PLEs. The number of SARS-Cov-2-symptoms and PLEs association was fully mediated by internalizing symptoms, but prospective studies will need to confirm this result.
  • ItemOpen Access
    What makes us human: How minds develop through social interactions
    (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2022-04-04) Ilgaz, Hande; Bürümlü Kısa, Elif; Evsen, Setenay; Ilgaz, Hande; Bürümlü Kısa, Elif; Evsen, Setenay
  • ItemOpen Access
    Emergent constructivism : theoretical and methodological considerations
    (S. Karger AG, 2022-07-29) Allen, Jedediah W.P.; Allen, Jedediah W.P.
    Nativist and empiricist approaches require foundationalism because they cannot account for the emergence of representation. Foundationalism is the assumption of an innate representational base. In turn, foundationalism places limits on the nature of learning as a constructivist process. In contrast, action-based approaches can account for the emergence of representation through (inter)action. In so doing, action-based approaches can pursue an emergent constructivism for learning and development. Despite the theoretical symmetry between nativism and empiricism with respect to foundationalism, there is an asymmetry in nativist and empiricist research programs. Nativism generally ignores constructivist complexity that non-nativist approaches assume needs to be investigated empirically. In practice, this means that the plethora of nativist looking-time studies do not provide adequate control conditions for the rich interpretations drawn from such research. Instead, it is the a priori assumptions of nativism doing the justification. Without such assumptions, the meaning of the data is unclear at best. Importantly, the problem of a priori assumptions driving rich interpretations is not specific to nativism or looking methodologies. Mindreading as a research program also engages in rich interpretations for studies that concern social-cognition from infancy through preschool. Similarly, these studies do not include the types of control conditions motivated by more constructivist thinking. To the extent that empiricist research programs incorporate constructivist thinking into research, they converge with action-based approaches. This creates a sort of methodological bridge between lean-empiricist research programs and action-based approaches. However, this bridge has limitations that we illustrate through an example concerning maternal mental-state discourse and theory of mind development. The ultimate conclusions are threefold: (a) Action-based approaches are the best theoretical framework for understanding learning and development; (b) constructivist methodology is multiply motivated; (c) there are varying degrees of methodological commensurability between empiricism and action-based approaches. © 2022 Human Development
  • ItemOpen Access
    Testing the compatibility of attachment anxiety and avoidance with cultural self-construals
    (Routledge, 2022-01-11) Sakman, Ezgi; Sümer, N.; Sakman, Ezgi
    Insecure attachment has been associated with relatively more negative outcomes in mainstream attachment literature, yet several empirical studies show almost half of the populations globally are insecurely attached. Moreover, although attachment security is the universal norm, attachment anxiety and avoidance exhibit significant cultural variation. To explore how this variation can offer certain advantages to people with insecure attachment tendencies, we tested the novel idea that different insecure attachment behaviors can be differentially compatible with varying cultural senses of self (i.e. independent vs. interdependent self-construal) in an experimental setting. We manipulated cultural self-construal by exposing the participants (N = 164) to either an independence or an interdependence prime and asked them to evaluate vignettes depicting typical anxious and avoidant behaviors. The results showed that insecure attachment behaviors were evaluated as more favorable when they were compatible with one’s own attachment tendency. Importantly, this trend was moderated by the cultural self-construal: Participants evaluated even those insecure attachment behaviors that were inconsistent with their own tendencies more favorably when these behaviors were compatible with the cultural self-construal that was experimentally induced. The findings are discussed in light of cultural implications.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Increasing the spatial extent of attention strengthens surround suppression
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2022-10) Kınıklıoğlu, Merve; Boyacı, Hüseyin; Kınıklıoğlu, Merve; Boyacı, Hüseyin
    Here we investigate how the extent of spatial attention affects center-surround interaction in visual motion processing. To do so, we measured motion direction discrimination thresholds in humans using drifting gratings and two attention conditions. Participants were instructed to limit their attention to the central part of the stimulus under the narrow attention condition, and to both central and surround parts under the wide attention condition. We found stronger surround suppression under the wide attention condition. The magnitude of the attention effect increased with the size of the surround when the stimulus had low contrast, but did not change when it had high contrast. Results also showed that attention had a weaker effect when the center and surround gratings drifted in opposite directions. Next, to establish a link between the behavioral results and the neuronal response characteristics, we performed computer simulations using the divisive normalization model. Our simulations showed that using smaller versus larger multiplicative attentional gain and parameters derived from the medial temporal (MT) area of the cortex, the model can successfully predict the observed behavioral results. These findings reveal the critical role of spatial attention on surround suppression and establish a link between neuronal activity and behavior. Further, these results also suggest that the reduced surround suppression found in certain clinical disorders (e.g., schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder) may be caused by abnormal attention mechanisms.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Adolescents’ expectations for types of victim retaliation following direct bullying
    (Springer, 2022-11-23) Marlow, C.; Gönültaş, Seçil; Mulvey, K. L.; Gönültaş, Seçil
    Little is known about adolescents’ expectations around how victims of bullying might retaliate following victimization. These expectations are important as they may inform adolescent’s own behaviors, particularly intervention behaviors, in regard to bullying and potential retaliation. This study investigated adolescents’ retaliation expectations and expected bystander reactions to retaliation following physical and social bullying. Participants included 6th grade (N = 450, Mage = 11.73 years, SD = 0.84) and 9th grade (N = 446, Mage = 14.82 years) adolescents (50.2% female, 63.3% European American, 22.9% African American, 3.9% Latino/a, 7% Multiracial, 2.9% Other) from middle-to-low-income U.S. public schools. Participants responded to open-ended prompts about victim responses to bullying, rating retaliation acceptability, and likelihood of engaging in bystander behaviors. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in retaliation expectation by type of aggression. Further, linear regressions were used to explore what factors were related to participants’ expectations regarding bystander intervention. Participants expected victims to retaliate by causing harm and expected the type of retaliation to match the type of bullying. Younger participants were more specific and males were more likely to expect physical harm than females. Finally, acceptability of retaliation predicted bystander interventions. Adolescents expect aggressive retaliation suggesting that intervention might focus on teaching them ways to respond when they are bullied or observe bullying.