Facial analysis of dyadic interactions using multiple instance learning
Embargo Lift Date: 2022-04-05
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Interpretation of nonverbal behavior is vital for a reliable analysis of social interactions. To this end, we automatically analyze facial expressions of romantic couples during their dyadic interactions, for the ﬁrst time in the literature. We use a recently collected romantic relationship dataset, including videos of 167 couples while talking on a conﬂicting case and a positive experience they share. To distin-guish between interactions during positive experience and conﬂicting discussions, we model facial expressions employing a deep multiple instance learning (MIL) framework, adapted from the anomaly detection literature. Spatio-temporal rep-resentation of facial behavior is obtained from short video segments through a 3D residual network and used as the instances in MIL bag formations. The goal is to detect conﬂicting sessions by revealing distinctive facial cues that are displayed in short periods. To this end, instance representations of positive experience and conﬂict sessions are further optimized, so as to be more separable using deep met-ric learning. In addition, for a more reliable analysis of dyadic interaction, facial expressions of both subjects in the interaction are analyzed in a joint manner. Our experiments show that the proposed approach reaches an accuracy of 71%. In addition to providing comparisons to several baseline models, we have also conducted a human evaluation study for the same task, employing 6 participants. The proposed approach performs 5% more accurately than humans as well as outperforming all baseline models. As suggested by the experimental results, reliable modeling of facial behavior can greatly contribute to the analysis of dyadic interactions, yielding a better performance than that of humans.
Multiple instance learning