Independent parallel lithography using the atomic force microscope
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena
A I P Publishing LLC
2456 - 2461
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Independent parallel features have been lithographically patterned with a 2×1 array of individually controlled cantilevers using an atomic force microscope. Control of the individual cantilevers was achieved with an integrated piezoelectric actuator in feedback with a piezoresistive sensor. Patterns were formed on 〈100〉 single crystal silicon by using a computer controlled tip voltage to locally enhance the oxidation of the silicon. Using the piezoresistor directly as a force sensor, parallel images can be simultaneously acquired in the constant force mode. A discussion of electrostatic forces due to applied tip voltages, hysteresis characteristics of the actuator, and the cantilever system is also presented.