Fast and accurate analysis of complicated metamaterial structures using a low-frequency multilevel fast multipole algorithm
We present efficient solutions of electromagnetics problems involving realistic metamaterial structures using a low-frequency multilevel fast multipole algorithm (LF-MLFMA). Ordinary implementations of MLFMA based on the diago-nalization of the Green's function suffer from the low-frequency breakdown, and they become inefficient for the solution of metamaterial problems dis-cretized with very small elements compared to the wavelength. We show that LF-MLFMA, which employs multipoles explicitly without diagonalization, significantly improves the solution of metamaterial problems in terms of both processing time and memory. © 2009 IEEE.