Impact of climate zone and orientation angle on the recurring massing school typologies in Turkey
In this study, the impact of different climate zones on same massing typologies of a typical school building with different orientation angles was quantified through building energy simulations of a case building in Turkey. The most schools in Turkey do not comply with the current energy code because they were built prior to the code. Thus, there is a crucial need to investigate their energy efficiency for potential retrofits. The results of the study exemplified how the breakdowns in energy use and carbon emissions would significantly influence design decision-making process of a school. Considering the four climate scenarios, mainly the influence of an orientation angle on energy use intensity (EUI) is higher than its influence on carbon emissions. This study differed from other sustainability researches in terms of defining building massing in schools with an emphasis on environmentally climate responsive school design, which is a holistic approach and comprehensive understanding of high-performance energy efficiency. A climate responsive massing should address the questions beyond well-known standards, and define a new holistic model that uses the optimum orientation, and surface to volume ratio of the building to reduce energy loads and achieve high-performance energy efficiency.