Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs during lipotoxic endoplasmic reticulum stress in RAW264.7 macrophages

Date
2016-06
Authors
Nadir, M.
Tufanlı, Ö.
Erbay, E.
Atalay, A.
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Source Title
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry
Print ISSN
0250-4685
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Turkish Biochemistry Society
Volume
41
Issue
3
Pages
206 - 215
Language
English
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Abstract

Objective: Increased fatty acids in the circulation and their accumulation in non-adipose tissues play a significant role in the development of obesity related metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes and atherosclerosis. While fat tissue has the ability to store excess fatty acids, uptake of excess fatty acids to other tissues burdens intracellular metabolic organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to stress response and lipotoxic cell death. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a key adaptation of the ER to stress. It is still not completely clear how lipids engage the UPR and how UPR manages both the adaptive and destructive consequences under its control. Increasing evidence point to the importance of miRNA regulation of the UPR as well as UPR’s role in miRNA biogenesis. In order to understand how lipids engage the UPR, we set forth to identify microRNAs regulated by lipotoxic ER stress in macrophages. Methods: We stressed the mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) with a saturated fatty acid, 500μM palmitate, reflecting the levels found in the circulation of obese patients. We analyzed the microRNAome profiles of this cell line using QRT-PCR based miScript miRNA PCR array which contained all known mouse microRNAs in miRBase release16 and performed pathway analysis for potential targets. Results: 227 microRNAs showed altered expression levels; 43 microRNAs above 2 fold difference and 13 microRNAs 3-24 fold difference. Pathway analysis enriched the target mRNAs of these lipotoxic ER stress associated miRNAs. Conclusion: When exposed to high concentrations of saturated fatty acids that can induce ER stress, macrophages display a dynamic range of changes in their microRNAome profiles. Our findings reflect the consequences of lipotoxic stress on circulating monocytes and tissue-associated macrophages in obesity. Further studies are needed to deliniate which UPR arm is reponsible for the microRNA changes reported here.

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