Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors

Date

2013

Authors

Polat, E. O.
Kocabas, C.

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Source Title

Nano Letters

Print ISSN

1530-6984

Electronic ISSN

1530-6992

Publisher

American Chemical Society

Volume

13

Issue

12

Pages

5851 - 5857

Language

English

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Abstract

Optical modulators are commonly used in communication and information technology to control intensity, phase, or polarization of light. Electro-optic, electroabsorption, and acousto-optic modulators based on semiconductors and compound semiconductors have been used to control the intensity of light. Because of gate tunable optical properties, graphene introduces new potentials for optical modulators. The operation wavelength of graphene-based modulators, however, is limited to infrared wavelengths due to inefficient gating schemes. Here, we report a broadband optical modulator based on graphene supercapacitors formed by graphene electrodes and electrolyte medium. The transparent supercapacitor structure allows us to modulate optical transmission over a broad range of wavelengths from 450 nm to 2 μm under ambient conditions. We also provide various device geometries including multilayer graphene electrodes and reflection type device geometries that provide modulation of 35%. The graphene supercapacitor structure together with the high-modulation efficiency can enable various active devices ranging from plasmonics to optoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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