Advances in plasmonic technologies for point of care applications
Infectious diseases have considerable economic and societal impact on developing settings. For instance, malaria is observed more commonly in sub-Saharan Africa and India. The societal impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis is high, through targeting adults in villages and leaving behind declining populations. Highly sensitive and specific lab assays such as cell culture methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are available for diagnosis of infectious diseases in the developed world. They require sample transportation, manual preparation steps, and skilled and well-trained technicians. These clinical conventional methods provide results in several hours to days, precluding rapid detection and response at the primary care settings. Another diagnostic challenge is identifying multiple pathogens.