Profiling turkish honeys to determine authenticity using physical and chemical characteristics

Date
2009
Authors
Senyuva H.Z.
Gilbert J.
Silici, S.
Charlton, A.
Dal, C.
Gürel, N.
Cimen, D.
Advisor
Supervisor
Co-Advisor
Co-Supervisor
Instructor
Source Title
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Print ISSN
218561
Electronic ISSN
Publisher
Volume
57
Issue
9
Pages
3911 - 3919
Language
English
Type
Article
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
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Abstract

Seventy authentic honey samples of 9 different floral types (rhododendron, chestnut, honeydew, Anzer (thymus spp.), eucalyptus, gossypium, citrus, sunflower, and multifloral) from 15 different geographical regions of Turkey were analyzed for their chemical composition and for indicators of botanical and geographical origin. The profiles of free amino acids, oligosaccharides, and volatile components together with water activity were determined to characterize chemical composition. The microscopic analysis of honey sediment (mellissopalynology) was carried out to identify and count the pollen to provide qualitative indicators to confirm botanical origin. Statistical analysis was undertaken using a bespoke toolbox for Matlab called Metabolab. Discriminant analysis was undertaken using partial least-squares (PLS) regression followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Four data models were constructed and validated. Model 1 used 51 variables to predict the floral origin of the honey samples. This model was also used to identify the top 5 variable important of projection (VIP) scores, selecting those variables that most significantly affected the PLS-LDA calculation. These data related to the phthalic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, raffinose, maltose, and sucrose. Data from these compounds were remodeled using PLS-LDA. Model 2 used only the volatiles data, model 3 the sugars data, and model 4 the amino acids data. The combined data set allowed the floral origin of Turkish honey to be accurately predicted and thus provides a useful tool for authentication purposes. However, using variable selection techniques a smaller subset of analytes have been identified that have the capability of classifying Turkish honey according to floral type with a similar level of accuracy. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

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Keywords
Amino acids, Chemometrics, Disaccharides, Floral types, Turkish honey, amino acid, oligosaccharide, water, article, classification, discriminant analysis, honey, mass fragmentography, odor, Turkey (republic), volatilization, Amino Acids, Discriminant Analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Honey, Odors, Oligosaccharides, Turkey, Volatilization, Water, Citrus, Cucumis melo var. inodorus, Eucalyptus, Gossypium, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus, Rhododendron
Citation
Published Version (Please cite this version)