Using phase relations in microstrip directional couplers to achieve high directivity
We analyze the microstrip directional couplers with a special focus on the phase difference between the coupled and isolated ports. The analysis uses the even-odd mode decomposition technique and network theory. The results show that the phase difference between the signals at the coupled port and the isolated port is close to \pi in a very wide band. This property can be used to achieve a broadband directivity by inducing a voltage cancellation at the isolated port of the couplers. Two different cancellation methods are investigated. Analytical formulas for the required component values of both methods are given. Higher directivity can be obtained at the expense of reduced bandwidth.