3D-MSCs A151 ODN-loaded exosomes are immunomodulatory and reveal a proteomic cargo that sustains wound resolution

Date
2022-11
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Source Title
Journal of Advanced Research
Print ISSN
20901232
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Publisher
Elsevier B.V.
Volume
41
Issue
Pages
113 - 128
Language
English
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Abstract

Introduction: Non-healing wounds remain a major burden due to the lack of effective treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) have emerged as therapeutic options given their pro-regenerative and immunomodulatory features. Still, little is known on the exact mechanisms mediated by MSC-Exo. Importantly, modulation of their efficacy through 3D-physiologic cultures together with loading strategies continues underexplored. Objectives: To uncover the MSC-Exo-mediated mechanism via proteomic analyses, and to use 3D-culture and loading technologies to expand MSC-Exo efficacy for cutaneous wound healing. Methods: MSC-Exo were produced in either 3D or 2D cultures (Exo3D/Exo2D) and loaded with an exogenous immunosuppressive oligodeoxynucleotide (A151 ODN). Both, loaded and naïve exosomes were characterised regarding size, morphology and the presence of specific protein markers; while IPA analyses enabled to correlate their protein content with the effects observed in vitro and in vivo. The Exo3D/Exo2D regenerative potential was evaluated in vitro by assessing keratinocyte and fibroblast mitogenicity, motogenicity, and cytokine secretion as well as using an in vivo wound splinting model. Accordingly, the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses by A151-loaded Exo3D/Exo2D was also assessed. Results: Exo3D stimulated mitogenically and motogenically keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, with upregulation of IL-1α and VEGF-α or increased secretion of TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-10. In vivo, Exo3D reduced the granulation tissue area and promoted complete re-epithelization of the wound. These observations were sustained by the proteomic profiling of the Exo3D cargo that identified wound healing-related proteins, such as TGF-β, ITGA1-3/5, IL-6, CDC151, S100A10 and Wnt5α. Moreover, when loaded with A151 ODN, Exo3D differentially mediated wound healing-related trophic factors reducing the systemic levels of IL-6 and TNF-α at the late stage of wound healing in vivo. Conclusion: Our results support the potential of A151-loaded Exo3D for the treatment of chronic wounds by promoting skin regeneration, while modulating the systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. © 2022

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